According to the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis, the driving force in the evolution of primate intelligence is social expertise, which enables the manipulation of and cooperation with other social group members (Whiten & Byrne 1988, Whiten 1999). Social interactions require communication and interspecific differences in social complexity may explain the observed variation of vocal repertoire complexity in different species. While this proposition apparently applies to primates (Dunbar 1993), little evidence has been found so far in bats (Wilkinson 2003). This could be due to the lack of comparative studies incorporating both behavioral observations on indicators of social complexity (e.g., behavioral repertoire size, group size, composition, and stability) and genetic analyses to assess the impact of sexual selection on social complexity and, accordingly, vocal complexity.
We are testing the influence of social complexity on vocal complexity in six species of emballonurid bats (, and ). Emballonurids are a phylogenetically old family of insectivorous bats occurring in a wide range of different habitats throughout both the Old and New World Tropics. They are very suitable for field studies due to the good accessibility of their day-roosts and the readiness with which they can be habituated to human observers. One member of this family, the Greater Sac-Winged Bat , has been the focus of detailed investigations for many decades and is probably one of the best studied bat species worldwide.
On one side in order tohave a have a “second track” for his influence and on theother side in order to be able to play the two off against each otherin a Machiavellian sense of “divide and rule”.
Other than humans, rhesus macaques are Earth’s most widespread primates, and both species are generalists whose ability to adapt has been responsible for their success. Rhesus macaques are , about twice that of dogs and cats, and nearly as much as chimpanzees. Rhesus macaques have what is called Machiavellian social organization, in which everybody is continually vying for rank and power is everything. Those with rhesus power get the most and best food, the best and safest sleeping places, mating privileges, the nicest environments to live in, and endless grooming by subordinates, whom the dominants can beat and harass whenever they want, while those low in the hierarchies get the scraps and are usually the first to succumb to the vagaries of rhesus life, including predation. It is the . But even the lowliest macaque will become patriotic cannon fodder if his society faces an external threat, as even a macaque knows that a miserable life is better than no life at all. The violence inflicted seems economically optimized; within a society the violence is mostly harassment, but when rival societies first come in contact, the violence is often lethal, as the initially established dominance can last for lifetimes. Within a society, killing a subordinate does not make economic sense, as that subordinate supports the hierarchy. Potentates rely on slaves. The human smile evolved from the teeth-baring display of monkeys that connotes fear or submission.
In addition to their , monkeys are quite vocal and a key social behavior is , which is integral to forming social bonds. In crab-eating macaques, or even a , and , so the world’s oldest profession may be quite old indeed. Vocalizations and grooming behaviors become more prominent in gorillas and chimpanzees ( is markedly different from that of African apes). A recent hypothesis is that with humans as a cheap way to form social bonds, and “cheap” is almost always measured in terms of energy and relates to how much metabolism is devoted to an activity. Chimpanzees spend about 20% of their day grooming, and humans spend about 20% of their day in conversation. The more intelligent a primate is, the larger its society can be, to navigate all of those social relationships. Chimp societies can reach to 120 members and humans can double that, to 250 or so, which probably not coincidentally is around the size of the .
Zionism was never anything other than a Machiavellian program for world domination, parts of which were plagiarised from an 1864 book by French writer Maurice Joly entitled . Alphonse Rothschild became aware of the book around 1889, and arranged for several Jewish writers to copy the program and set it out in a manuscript that became known as . The Zionist Jewish supremacist program included the following (for "us", "our", read "the Zionist shadow government['s]"):