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Does the autistic child have a theory of mind?

There is no certainty concerning the causes of Autism or Asperger Syndrome, but reviews of studies suggests there may be some organic basis of autism. The developing nervous system may be adversely influenced at a very early stage by the effects of a variety of conditions such as maternal rubella, tuberous sclerosis, lack of oxygen at birth, ~ cough, allergies, or measles. Genetic factors appear significant but the sites of the relevant genes have not been pinpointed. Metabolic abnormalities, or mineral and vitamin deficiencies, may also be implicated among contributory causal factors.No significant evidence exists for psychogenic theories (i.e. some lack of attachment or bonding - "emotional refrigeration"). There has been considerable publicity afforded to the hypothesised link between autism and the MMR vaccination. However, there is no widely accepted evidence to support this hypothesis; the research appearing to support this link has been much criticised for methodological flaws.Much of the behaviour characteristic of autism may reflect a deficit in . The individual cannot readily appreciate the feelings, knowledge, or beliefs in other people (nor indeed fully recognise or interpret his or her own thought processes). Hence stilted language interaction, a lack of self-consciousness, and weakness in understanding social situations ... i.e. problems in social communication. refers to responding to only part of a stimulus, rather than to the whole thing or the whole social setting, with implications for an inability to maintain , or stress resulting from .A limitation in implies an inability to use context or to generalise from one task or setting to another. This further highlights the tendency to attend to single elements of a stimulus or to fail to see the whole from the sum of the parts.Weaknesses in language (and social) interaction may be explained at least partially by a lack of . Pragmatic language, vocabulary development, and shared attention all assume that the speaker and listener are focusing upon the same thing, and a significant strategy for the listener is that of checking what the speaker is looking at. Such a strategy appears to develop spontaneously in young infants, but an absence of joint attention by around 18 months is a strong diagnostic indicator for autism. of language usage implies that nothing can be taken for granted in the autistic child's response to instructions. For example, if requesting the child to ask his mum if she wants a cup of tea, one would need to request him also to return with the answer. highlights the likely problem in developing (imaginative) play in that objects are not used as representations of something else ... a cardboard tube is a cardboard tube, not a telescope. The purpose of games, such as playground football, may not be appreciated, and the use of coats for goalposts would be very puzzling.

There is no certainty concerning the causes of Autism or Asperger Syndrome, but reviews of studies suggests there may be some organic basis of autism. The developing nervous system may be adversely influenced at a very early stage by the effects of a variety of conditions such as maternal rubella, tuberous sclerosis, lack of oxygen at birth, ~ cough, allergies, or measles. Genetic factors appear significant but the sites of the relevant genes have not been pinpointed. Metabolic abnormalities, or mineral and vitamin deficiencies, may also be implicated among contributory causal factors.

Exploration of the autistic child’s theory of mind: Knowledge, belief and communication.

Does the chimpanzee have a “theory of mind”?

Children whose needs are not at the severe end of the spectrum have been and can be successfully included within mainstream schools. This has been most successful where schools have been given opportunities to understand the implications of Asperger syndrome or autism for the child and have had the opportunity to explore strategies and interventions. There will need to be flexibility and a recognition that the child may need some approaches different to those used for the other children. Close working with parents is also essential, to ensure consistency and mutual support.

The programme for an individual pupil will need to be based on the assessments of the pupil's individual needs and developed by close collaboration of all those involved with the pupil. However, Basic strategies would include:

Theory of Mind | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

It has to be accepted that there is no cure for autism or Asperger syndrome. However, individualised education programmes and structured support can maximise the child's progress, reduce pressure and stress upon the child and the family, and minimise the incidence of behavioural problems.

Among pre-school children, or in specialist schools and centres, the range of intervention approaches serves to demonstrate the range of needs, and levels of need, among children all legitimately described as having autism or Asperger syndrome.

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The Theory of Mind Account of Autism Essay Sample


#1763- Hyperlexia and Autism: How Theory of Mind …

Weaknesses in language (and social) interaction may be explained at least partially by a lack of . Pragmatic language, vocabulary development, and shared attention all assume that the speaker and listener are focusing upon the same thing, and a significant strategy for the listener is that of checking what the speaker is looking at. Such a strategy appears to develop spontaneously in young infants, but an absence of joint attention by around 18 months is a strong diagnostic indicator for autism.

This deficit may be explained by the Theory of Mind hypothesis.

Gerald Sande
First Order Second Order Affect Recognition
Measures
Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence
- Measure of Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ)
~Inclusion criterion (S.S.= 85 ± 5 )
- Similarities & Vocabulary subtests



NEPSY-II
Results
No significant difference between groups on the contextual and verbal tasks of the Theory of Mind subtest.

Significant difference on the Affect Recognition subtest.
Discussion
Differences
Trends
Limitations
Implications
Comparison to other research
Future Research?
Why Verbal Intelligence?
On Full Scale IQ Tasks, persons with ASD show "Peaks and Valleys"
Verbal Intelligence and ASD
Acknowledgments:
I'd like to thank:

- My advisors, Dr.

Autism and Theory of Mind | SLT info

Much of the behaviour characteristic of autism may reflect a deficit in . The individual cannot readily appreciate the feelings, knowledge, or beliefs in other people (nor indeed fully recognise or interpret his or her own thought processes). Hence stilted language interaction, a lack of self-consciousness, and weakness in understanding social situations ... i.e. problems in social communication. refers to responding to only part of a stimulus, rather than to the whole thing or the whole social setting, with implications for an inability to maintain , or stress resulting from .A limitation in implies an inability to use context or to generalise from one task or setting to another. This further highlights the tendency to attend to single elements of a stimulus or to fail to see the whole from the sum of the parts.Weaknesses in language (and social) interaction may be explained at least partially by a lack of . Pragmatic language, vocabulary development, and shared attention all assume that the speaker and listener are focusing upon the same thing, and a significant strategy for the listener is that of checking what the speaker is looking at. Such a strategy appears to develop spontaneously in young infants, but an absence of joint attention by around 18 months is a strong diagnostic indicator for autism. of language usage implies that nothing can be taken for granted in the autistic child's response to instructions. For example, if requesting the child to ask his mum if she wants a cup of tea, one would need to request him also to return with the answer.

Dopamine and theory of mind: another autism…

No significant evidence exists for psychogenic theories (i.e. some lack of attachment or bonding - "emotional refrigeration"). There has been considerable publicity afforded to the hypothesised link between autism and the MMR vaccination. However, there is no widely accepted evidence to support this hypothesis; the research appearing to support this link has been much criticised for methodological flaws.

and theory of mind: another autism ..

and (2009) 'Language and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder : the relationship between complement syntax and false belief task performance.', Journal of autism and developmental disorders., 39 (6). pp. 929-937.

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