OECD explains the importance of having a vibrant service sector from the perspective that, first, it ensures quality of life for rural citizens, and second, it is necessary for the development of the rural economy (OECD, 2010). OECD further states that: “The availability of an appropriate mix of private, public and voluntary services in all communities is an increasingly important factor in building a competitive and sustainable economy” (OECD, 2010, p. 57). Thus for OECD, the economic side of service provision is a major consideration, and every part of the economy should be fine-tuned for the benefit of people and businesses. In terms of policies, it is therefore considered essential to unlock the potential of all territories (OECD, 2010). According to OECD statistics, the service sector accounts for about 70% of the economy, and in rural areas the sector’s share of the economy is only marginally lower. In the future, OECD expects the service sector to increase even further, also in rural areas. Simutaneously however, the formats of rural service provision are expected to be under pressure. For instance, Hindle and Annibal (2011) warns that significant reductions in funding in the UK necessitate new approaches to maintain and enhance services.
Other problematic aspects are connected to the rapidly changing logics in many aspects of the economy. For example, rural areas envisage less than optimum digital capacity in spite of the fact that technologies are available and implementable. Grimes (2003) remarks that digital equality for rural areas requires distinct governmental intervention or new types of collaborative originations. Likewise, the upkeep and development of service provision is also depending on new types of private-public-voluntary partnerships.
In the article written by D. K. McNeese-Smith, issues of productivity and nonproductivity were investigated. The purpose of this study was to consider "staff nurse views of their productivity and nonproductivity, and factors that increase or decrease their productivity" (McNeese-Smith, 2001). McNeese-Smith used semi-structured interviews to gather data about, and factors influencing productivity. Recruited from six different nursing units, 30 staff nurses were used, in an attempt to accurately represent nurses as a whole. The researchers found that productivity was based on two categories; quantity, and quality of their work. A third category considered, was personal factors that "influence their quantity and quality of work" (McNeese-Smith, 2001).
Several factors influence the growth of the total vehicle fleet, such as sustained economic growth (increase in income and quality of life), complex individual urban movement patterns (), more leisure time and suburbanization.
Multi-service outlets can be defined as premises or facilities housing two or more different services at the same time provided by or involving two or more agencies or actors. In a study in rural England, Moseley et al (2004) conclude that multi-service outlets represent an indisputable opportunity for rural service provision. According to Moseley and Owen (2008) the services in rural England are normally delivered either at fixed outlets (single-service outlets or multi-service outlets), by outreach service as mobile delivery agents (mobile services, home delivery and peripatetic delivery) or electronically. The advantages to the service suppliers of multi-service outlets are that multi-service outlets lead both to cost saving or sharing and to additional income generation, increased clientele, synergy, and flexibility (Moseley et al, 2004). From the consumer perspective multi-service outlets are considered a good option for people with mobility problems, as they are convenient ‘one-stop shop’. Besides, they become community focal points and hubs and thereby enhance social capital (Moseley et al, 2004; Moran et al, 2007). Disadvantages from the consumer perspective relate to the risk that the service quality is lower, and to the fact that clustering a variety of services in one location possibly withdraws the services from other locations. As an answer to this, Moseley et al, (2004) expose that supporters of the multi-service outlet approach need to be very alert and consistent in the definition of services qualities. Critiques refer to the hazard that citizens involuntarily become participants in a “post-code lottery” where they face a variability in service delivery which they cannot affect and respond to themselves (Mosley and Owen, 2008).
My study is about the impact of slaughtering on the psychological well-being of slaughterers. Through a literature search I have found that slaughterers working as stunners or bleeders in the dirty area of an abattoir may develop psychological and physical disorders due to the daily challenges of their work. Some of these disorders include post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, violent behaviour, substance abuse, etc. Some slaughterers have the ability to cope with these challenges, but others struggle to cope and then start to develop psychological disorders. These disorders may influence their work as well as their relationships with co-workers and family members.
A study focusing on how slaughterers experience their work and what the impact of slaughtering animals may have on their psychological well-being, will make a positive contribution to the well-being of abattoir employees, as it will help researchers to identify factors that can make abattoir employees more resilient within and outside their work setting.
If one can determine what the impact of slaughtering animals is on the psychological well-being of the slaughterer, psychosocial and health interventions may be developed. The findings of the study can also be used to give employees access to counselling, debriefing sessions and job rotation – which may lead to better coping. The results can also be used to develop prevention strategies for employees before they start working in the dirty area of an abattoir. The results will therefore make a positive contribution to the abattoir industry of South Africa. The study will also make a contribution to the field of psychology in South Africa as well as internationally and fill a gap in the literature, since there are limited studies done on the subject.
For the purpose of this study, a qualitative research design will be used with a grounded theory research approach. Semi-structured in-depth interviews will be use in order to collect the data. The qualitative data will be analysed according to the grounded theory method, and the results will be used to develop a model of employee well-being. The model will describe the negative and the positive impact of slaughter on the psychological well-being of abattoir employees. The negative part refers to the impact of slaughtering on the psychological well-being of slaughterers, while the positive part will aim to explain how slaughterers cope with their negative circumstances. The model will further describe why some abattoir employees cope better with the challenges of their work than others. The model will also aim to explain what type of person cope with their challenges and what kind of person struggle to cope. For the purpose of this study a grounded theory approach will be a good choice, since it is an appropriate way to study human behaviour on a sensitive topic and in a different cultural context.
The researcher will interview kosher, halal and normal slaughterers. These three groups will be compared with one another according to the impact slaughtering have on their well-being. The researcher will also conduct interviews with some of the family members of the slaughterer’s and with the management of the abattoirs.
Red meat abattoirs across South Africa will be used in the study.
The overall aim of this research is to investigate various factors (e.g. freezing time, species, gender, cooking conditions, etc.) influencing the sensory quality (aroma, flavour, texture attributes) as well as the volatile compound profile of game meat derived from South African species.
Synopsis: The UK rail industry needs to innovate or it will die. Many people will question this. After all, the UK rail industry has one of the best safety records in Europe, customers keep paying rail fares and customer satisfaction keeps going up. However, customers now expect the same level of service from rail that they do from their taxi app, broadband provider or takeaway delivery service. We have identified five key barriers to innovation for this presentation: (1) Procurement frameworks; (2) Data access; (3) Non output-driven funding landscape; (4) A resistant rail culture; (5) The franchising system.
Synopsis: Successful deployment of CAVs is contingent on two equally important and interdependent elements. One of these is the vehicle, obviously, but arguably as important is trust in the data being shared that generates services and information for user and operator alike. Trust between the various elements in the CAV ecosystem (public/private, etc.) is the single biggest blocker to establishing an interoperable, network-efficient deployment of CAVs. Arup proposes the establishment of a GRC (governance/risk/compliance) data arbitration layer that sits above the data aggregators and validates information exchange across all parties and offers consistency/reliability/scalability of services for the customer, manufacturer and road operator.
Traditionally, impala have been hunted and their meat typically processed into biltong and droëwors. However, more ordered commercial harvesting methods make game meat available to be marketed as fresh meat rather than traditional products. When marketing fresh meat, various quality cues (colour, tenderness, etc.) become important as these influence the purchasing decisions of consumers. Surprisingly, little work has been published on the ageing effects on the meat quality of impala, and the variation between different commercially important muscles has not yet been quantified, nor the effect of extrinsic factors such as diet, on the flavour and odour components.