Shiv Singh Assistant Librarian.
Doctor of Philosophy to the INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI It is certified that the thesis entitled "Exploring Gandhian Science: A Case Study.
Department of Gandhian and Peace Studies Panjab University Chandigarh India, Thesis ; PU Quick.
The title of Gandhi’s first autobiography, My Experiments with Truth, introduces us to two main ideas for a Gandhian philosophy of peace: experiment and truth.
Gandhi Shikshan Bhavan's Smt.
Gandhi never took action in the world until he had first meditated and asked for inner guidance on what to do. When Gandhi's movement also became violent, he called off further action until people could be adequately trained in nonviolence. Gandhi did not see nonviolence as passive, but rather as active struggle against unjust laws or policies. Gandhi also believed that one should not oppose all laws, only the unjust ones. Gandhi had five stages in his nonviolent struggle, as noted below, and believed that one must exhaust all possibilities of each stage before going on to the next stage.
This section of the paper will look at exoteric or outer forms of religion, i.e., religion as part of our socially-learned behavior or culture--whether it takes the form of traditional organized religion or a more extremist or fundamentalist form, and how principles from intercultural communication and conflict resolution can help people deal constructively with cultural and religious diversity.
The question is whether Pax Gandhiana can be maintained by consent, instead of compulsion.
Pax Britannica was of course following a pattern of history according to which when the discordant units of a region fight among themselves, only external coercion could pacify them.
Arma or conquest had to come first, only then could jura or laws enforce peace.
Given this pattern of history, Gandhi’s attempt might seem idealistic if not quixotic.
Only civic nonviolence can pave the way for Pax Gandhiana.
Pax Gandhiana in India required not only a new philosophy of nonviolence, but also a new cohesive Indian political community.
There was a in India a life and death struggle between these three forms of nationalism--civic nationalism, religious nationalism, and ethnic nationalism.
Not surprisingly, Gandhi found religious nationalism and ethnic nationalism standing in the way of Pax Gandhiana.
Writes Gandhi: “Gokhale’s ideal in his life was to labor to bring about this state of affairs.”
The two ethics—those of the Gita and Isaiah—Gandhi implies, can lead to comparable outcomes, viz., the reconciliation of historical enemies.
It is this ethic that provides the moral foundation for civic fraternity and civic nonviolence.
Gandhi and Andrews were divided by race and religion.
Despite the presence of temporary tendencies like jealousy and competition in man, development is, in fact, a necessity of the individual as well the society, and civilization is the outcome of the process of development. Therefore, Gumplowicz and Ward, making this reality the basis of their ideas put forth that cultural and racial conflicts are for the making of civilization. Furthermore, one’s domination over the other began the emergence of situations of slave and master and also the organization of state-like institutions, also the consequence of this very process. In the words of Gumplowicz himself, “Every political organization and hence every developing organization, begins when one group permanently subjects another. Subjection of some to the others is the source of political organization, is the condition essential to social growth.”
The doing of the duty is in one’s own hand—the achievement of results one must leave to Providence or whatever power it may be that guides our destinies.”
But according to Gandhi the person who best implemented the new philosophy of nonviolence was Gopal Krishna Gokhale, his acknowledged political guru.
Therefore, Jinnah concluded, to place Hindus and Muslims under the same state—as Gandhi’s civic nationalism wanted to do—could only lead to their “final destruction.” Final destruction is a terrible, but accurate way of describing the outcome of the inability to distinguish between religious doctrines and religious ethics.
But no account of Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence would be complete without a mention his idea of heroic nonviolence--in his terminology, “nonviolence of the brave” or “nonviolence as creed”.
A jurist, diplomat, cabinet minister, and statesman, Chagla wrote the following in his Autobiography: “I have…never empathized with the sannyasi ideal…The better and more satisfying philosophy is the one that the Bhagavad Gita teaches—the philosophy of non-attachment.