Main field of his interests is mathematical modelling of the adsorption process, description of the porous structure, practical aspects of adsorption, an analysis of the influence of the production method on the formation of the porous structure of carbon adsorbents, numerical analysis, computer science, energy efficiency, renewable energies and problems connected with municipal waste management.
Vancouver, B.C.: Municipal Solid and Biomedical Waste Branch, Environmental Protection Division, Ministry of Environment, British Columbia, Canada, 1991.
The rates the government pays for waste collection and disposal services eventually reached $147 per ton in 2015, which is nearly double the global rate of $75 per ton, and almost four times the regional average of $40 per ton. The company is still being paid through mechanisms that are pending regularization. It is supposed to get paid through the so called “independent monetary fund” that was created in the post-war years to support the financially weak municipalities. However, this fund would have to get paid to the municipalities first, who then would pay for waste management services. Yet, the government centralized waste management and instead of handing the money over to municipalities, Sukleen is currently paid directly from the treasury.
Less constrained by land limitations than Singapore, Indonesia also presents opportunities in a composting industry now more attractive due to an increasing awareness amongst the general public of the need to separate organic from inorganic waste. Initiatives from local governments and private sector players such as Unilever Indonesia to introduce the concept of waste banks -- in which households separate their waste into different containers and then deposit non-organic solid waste at a collection point in their neighborhood in exchange for money that can be kept in an account at the waste bank or withdrawn – have had a substantial impact across the country in educating consumers and changing their behavior. Over 14,000 kg of inorganic waste was collected by local communities in Greater Jakarta less than a year after Unilever Indonesia’s program set up 10 waste banks in the area. This movement also leads to the creation of centralized recycling and collection points that build towards the basic infrastructure needed for lucrative composting business opportunities in Indonesia.
Water and Wastewater Pollution
Solid Waste Management and Soil Pollution
Waste management poses a mounting challenge in Indonesia as growing household consumption and accelerated business activity gives rise to higher volumes of organic food waste, plastic packaging and industrial byproducts. To address this increasingly severe waste problem characterized by a near trebling of the country’s production of municipal solid waste from 0.8 kg per capita to 2.1 kg per capita over the past decade (UNCRD); the Indonesian government has sought to impose stricter waste management and recycling regulations. Most recently, the Ministry of Environment in cooperation with the Ministry of Industry announced its plans to issue a ministerial mandate that better defines the different types of hazardous waste and puts in place easily understood penalties for non-compliance.
Kojima-san presented her thesis, Determinants of citizen’s satisfaction levels toward municipal solid waste management: Life-stage approach, which analyse attitudes and behaviors of citizens in Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa prefecture, related to the waste management.
Despite what is now becoming a legal landscape conducive to the success of companies in the waste management and recycling sector, challenges brought about by Indonesia’s informal sector continue to dampen the potential of this industry. Business reliant upon the growing supply of waste products must contend with the prevalence of scavengers who depend on collecting, sorting and selling waste for their income. Efforts to educate consumers about the advantages of commercial scale waste management and recycling are often met with opposition from communities unwilling to jeopardize the livelihood of scavengers.
The opportunities to investors approaching Indonesia as a producer of over 10 million tonnes of waste per year (Municipal Solid Waste Management and Waste to Energy in Indonesia; A Policy Review, Aretha Aprilia, Kyoto University) are far reaching and diverse. Foremost among these opportunities is tapping into the management and reuse of the country’s household waste.
Also in 1994, the Council of Ministers contracted the private company Sukleen to provide solid waste management services for Beirut. However, the contract between the government and Sukleen is illegal: the right and duty to organize solid waste collection and disposal lies by law in the hands of the municipalities.
The decision was made nonetheless, even though there was another striking argument for not contracting the company: The Municipality of Beirut had developed a waste management plan in the same years as Sukleen. The municipality’s plan would have cost half of the amount requested by the company. Strangely, the plan elaborated by the municipality was not considered, and Sukleen was awarded instead. The Daily Star, a Lebanese newspaper, published an interview with the head of Sukleen, which might provide an explanation for the decision made by the Council of Ministers: Maysara Sukkar acknowledged in this interview the need for ties with politicians in order to do business in Lebanon and to flourish: The company’s service area got continuously expanded until including the areas of Mount Lebanon. Between 1994 and 2015, the contracts with the company have been constantly extended, while Sukleen’s costs increased exponentially throughout these years.
Indonesia’s concerted efforts to move up the value added chain will also create bright prospects in providing waste management services to downstream industries that produce waste requiring specialized disposal or recycling processes. Mineral processing, for example, produces waste in the form of tailings; a slurry comprised of excess water and chemicals added during ore treatment that demands special care in preventing uncontrolled release into the environment. Companies with expertise in advanced storage techniques, such as the use of geotextile containers that dewater said slurry and facilitate the waste being stored as a solid, are encouraged to enter the market at a time when traditional methods of waste disposal in Indonesia such as storage in on site bodies of water have been found to negatively impact the environment. With that said, foreign investors are advised to wait for the impending release of the aforementioned revision to waste management regulations, as the new categorizations of B3 waste may entail mandatory management and disposal processes specific to each waste type.
It was and still is very difficult, however, to protest one specific government authority, or against a specific political figure responsiblefor waste management, because the division of waste management is fragmented within the government. By law, the municipalities have the right and duty to deal with their waste. The Ministry of Interior and Municipalities represents the municipalities on a national level and has therefore jurisdiction over the waste sector. The Ministry of Environment has also jurisdiction over the sector. Supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Ministry of Environment has been elaborating waste management plans in the past years. None of these plans, however, has been put into practice: in July 2006 a war broke out with Israel, which itself had horrendous implications on the environment of the country: Israel had attacked a coastal power plant and during this attack, oil tanks were bombed. Thus, 15,000 tons of oil were released into the Mediterranean, causing a damage that the UN estimated to reach $856.4 million. Due to these dramatic months of 2006, the waste problematic yielded to reconstruction plans and clean-up efforts. Another waste plan, proposed in 2010, included incinerators and the burning of trash, which was opposed by the public.