A further criticism of Krashen's theories is levelled at his repudiation of grammar instruction. Critics claim that some kind of direct focus on grammar is both beneficial and necessary - see Long (1998). Krashen (2003), after a comprehensive analysis of the research data in these two areas, concludes that neither learner output nor grammar focus have any direct influence on acquisition. He states that his hypotheses " .. have not only survived well over the years but have also proven to be useful in other areas of language education. So far, research results remain consistent with these hypotheses and there is no counterevidence."
We were joined a while ago by an Italian boy who had a little German but no English. He did not want to be here and had to be dragged in (literally) by his parents on the first day. He refused to speak any English at all (even in ESL class) for his first 4-5 months at the school. However, after he overcame his initial negativity and high anxiety (or, in Krashen's terms, after his affective filter came down), he listened attentively in class and spoke German when he needed to communicate. Shortly after Christmas he decided that he was ready to speak English and he did so with an accuracy and fluency some way beyond the other students in the class. [Admittedly, his classmates were Asians whose native languages are much further from English than Italian is. It also helped that the boy had already had the experience of learning a foreign language.]
- Kinesthetic learning style is one of the three learning styles that allows a student to learn through moving, touching and doing, rather than seeing or listening.
The flipped classroom provides learners with content information and presentation before reaching the class which permits learners to inquire, interact with classmates and instructors instantly as well as post questions that the instructor later uses as feedback for class reinforcement while working online....
Krashen (1984) applies his theory of the affective filter to the acquisition of writing competence. Learners who are anxious or have low expectations of success are less likely to become proficient writers, regardless of the amount and quality of the reading they do.
It impacts various aspects of individual's life, such as environment in which that person learns best, topics he/she is interested in, approaches to the learning situation, and so on.
Teaching and the Organ of Learning
Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain includes many wonderful real-life examples of how the three elements of relaxed alertness, orchestrated immersion, and active processing occur in successful teaching situations at all levels, from elementary school to college and beyond, and with a variety of methods. Current neuroscience research does not yet fully and accurately explain why such real-life examples are effective. Nevertheless, teaching, and a need for understanding how “the organ of learning” works, are now linked as never before.
- Educational objectives research papers discuss how objectives help to focus the lesson, provide learning goals for students, and help teachers form a basis for evaluation.
Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire our first language and our subsequent languages. He claims that humans have an that guides the language learning process. Infants learn their mother tongue simply by listening attentively to spoken language that is (made) meaningful to them. Foreign languages are acquired in the same way.
The claim that humans possess an innate language learning ability stems from Chomsky (1965), who rejected Skinner's (1957) behaviourist theory that language learning is habit formation through stimulus and response. Chomsky called the special inborn language capability the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). From this he developed the theory that all languages share an underlying system named Universal Grammar. The hypothesis that the ability to learn language is innate has been restated more recently by linguist Steven Pinker who claims that this ability is "hard-wired in the genes".
Many researchers believe that everyone has a preferred learning style and have developed a list of questions and if answered truthfully, are designed to indicate what preferred style the learner has....
Chomsky and Pinker are nativists. Their theories are opposed by contemporary empiricists such as Sampson (2005), who reiterate Skinner's claim that language develops in response to environmental influences. Other linguists and cognitive scientists, such as O'Grady (2005), agree that humans possess significant innate capabilities. However, they suggest that language learning depends on general cognitive faculties rather than on a specific language acquisition mechanism.
Krashen synthesizes his theories of second/foreign language learning in what is usually referred to as the Monitor Model. The Monitor Model has 5 components: