Short Bio: Carlos López-Gómez is the head of knowledge exchange at the Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (CSTI), University of Cambridge. His work explores the interfaces of industrial and innovation policy with particular emphasis on how countries capture value through manufacturing innovation. Carlos has advised regional and national governments as well as international institutions, including the UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the European Commission as well as regional governments in Mexico and Spain. Carlos is currently a visiting researcher at the Center for Research and Development Strategy (CRDS), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST); and at the Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP), University of Tokyo.
Behavioral changes in daily life are essential for saving energy, preventing diseases, and reducing damages from natural disasters. However, it is often difficult to set in place laws and other regulatory measures that are directly targeted at individual behavioral changes. That is why there is an increasing interest in using behavioral science insights, which are called "nudges." They utilizes the psychological biases of people in an attempt to lead their behaviors toward "good" outcomes. This symposium will look into innovative approaches for public policy and business utilizing nudges, focusing on energy savings and health promotion.
The Second GSDM International Symposium "Four Years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Recent Trends in Innovation, Resilience, and Security and Their Implications for the Future" was organized on Wednesday, March 11 by the and the Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP) at the University of Tokyo. In Session 2: Stimulating Innovation in an Information-Intensive Environment: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Design and Management, based on emerging trends in innovation involving a massive amount of various types of data and information created in diverse areas, ranging from energy saving and water supply to precision medicine and disaster risk reduction, we discussed with experts in academia, industry, and the public sector what kinds of strategies, public policies and institutional frameworks would be necessary and how we could implement them by collaborating with stakeholders.
In Session 2: Stimulating Innovation in an Information-Intensive Environment: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Design and Management, Dr. Timothy Dalton of IBM Research in the United States will give a keynote speech, following which I will moderate panel discussion with leading experts on how to encourage innovation in an increasingly information-rich environment for tackling societal challenges, including energy security, public health, environmental protection, and sustainability.
Abstract: The article will interrogate the degree to which the Obama administration has continued, even at times inadvertently, the Bush administration’s challenge on international law. Notwithstanding the Obama administration’s bold pronouncements pertaining to reversing its predecessor’s policies, little has actually changed when it comes to how the United States considers using military force. As a means to unpack this transition and apparent gap, the article will firstly, consider the apparent continuum of US use-of-force policies from the Bush to the Obama administration, specifically: the conflation in the line between pre-emptive and preventive self-defense options; the sustained post-9/11 legacies that continue to lower thresholds towards using military force; and how this ultimately contributes to the erosion of international law. Secondly, the article presents a critical contextualization of Obama’s drone program and its legal arguments in relation to his administration’s overall use-of-force policy, focusing on jus ad bellum standards. In light of the centrality of targeted killing under Obama, our article will pay particular attention to the apparent contradiction this poses with regard to his reluctance to use military force in relation to ongoing conflicts in Libya and Syria, while also looking at recent adjustments pertaining to use-of-force pronouncements against the Islamic State (IS). The article lastly considers what this will mean for international use-of-force thresholds and the future of the general prohibition on the use-of-force in the context of new and emerging technologies and theaters should the United States continue to skew and adjust its use-of-force policies on when, how, against who and where to use such force.
Bio: Matthew A. Shapiro is an Associate Professor of Political Science, Lewis College of Human Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology. He was trained in political science, economics, and public policy at the University of California at San Diego (B.A.) and the University of Southern California (M.A. & Ph.D). He also earned an M.A. in Korean Studies at Yonsei University’s Graduate School of International Studies in Seoul, having won a Woojung Scholarship to study there. Dr. Shapiro’s published and ongoing research lies at the intersection between economics and public policy. More specifically, he attempts to understand how national innovation systems are formed and contribute to sustainable development, how climate change is addressed and impacted by relevant policies and political forces, and how communications from politicians, scientists, and the media impact both of these areas. In political science, these concerns fall under the purview of science, technology, and environmental politics (STEP), information technology and politics (ITP), and East Asian politics. Dr. Shapiro’s work has been published in The Pacific Review, American Politics Research, Environment & Planning, International Journal of Public Policy, and Scientometrics among others. He teaches courses in research methods, public policy, political economy, and Asian politics for the Department of Social Sciences.
A public seminar, , was organized on June 16 by UCL Public Policy. Professor Ian Boyd, Chief Scientific Adviser at the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the UK government, addressed important questions such as: What are the key attributes needed of scientific advice for policy? How should scientists behave in order to deliver their advice? and What outcomes and expectations should there be of scientific advice? Key attributes of scientific advice identified by him include short/brief/concise, honest (e.g. around uncertainty), pitched to audience (policy makers vs. politicians, understand their problem), outcome-driven, practical (not theoretical), a-political (objective), option-based, and authoritative.
will be held on Friday, November 28 at the University of Tokyo, organized by the Science, Technology, Innovation Governance (STIG) Program at the Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP). We will discuss key issues and challenges in science, technology, and innovation governance, including how to mobilize scientific knowledge effectively in public decision making for societal challenges including sustainability.
Abstract: The smart grid can help to improve the efficiency and reliability of the aging electricity grid in industrialized countries, as well as to support the deployment of resilient, low-carbon electricity infrastructure in developing countries, which are the drivers of the world’s growing greenhouse gas emissions. In the US, about 10% of the electricity does not reach the end-users and $80 billion in economic losses are due to blackouts and unreliable power. To address these deficiencies and to dramatically expand the integration of sporadic sources of power like solar and wind into the energy mix, both hardware and software innovations are needed to modernize the grid. In this study, key successes from the Green Electricity Network Integration (GENI) program of the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E) are identified.
Bio: Kathryn B. Janda is an interdisciplinary, problem-based scholar and senior researcher at the Environmental Change Institute at the University of Oxford. Her research focuses on how organizations and professions (re)design, use, own, and manage non-domestic buildings. Her approach builds on literature in technological innovation, organizational decision-making, and energy policy. Her work has been supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Science Research Council, the UK Economic and Social Research Council, Electricité de France, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, and the World Bank. She currently serves as an advisor to the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change. She earned undergraduate degrees in electrical engineering and English literature from Brown University (USA) and her M.S. and Ph.D. from the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California, Berkeley. She has worked in the Energy Analysis Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (USA) and served as an American Association for the Advancement of Science Environmental Policy Fellow at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Prior to her position at Oxford, she served as an assistant professor of Environmental Studies at Oberlin College (Ohio, USA), where she taught courses on energy production and consumption; interdisciplinary building analysis; environment and society; a practicum on ecological design; and qualitative research methods.
is held on June 30-July 4 in London, co-organized by the Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP) of University College London (UCL) with the World Bank Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). Our colleagues at STEaPP and the Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction (IRDR) organized a session on Educating Future Leaders in Understanding Risk, which facilitated vibrant discussions on how to create leaders for disaster risk management and governance in the public and private sectors.