Advances in stem cell research
The history of this cells’ research is for more than 5 decades. In the early 1950, there was the discovery that the bone marrow has at least two different types of stem cells. They include; hematopoietic stem cells which is applicable in the formation of all types of the body blood cells and bone marrow stromal stem cells, which are made by stem cells of non-hematopoietic in the bone marrow. They produce bone, fat, cartilages, fibrous connective tissue, and cells that usually support the bold formation process. In the 1960s, the study of rats done by scientist discovered that there are two regions in the brain that have dividing cells that later become nerve cells (Lumelsky et al 1389–1394). Despite this report, many scientists have a believe that an adult brain could be unable to produce new nerve cells. Later in 1990s, scientists believed that an adult brain do contain stem cells that have the power to produce the three main cells types brain.
In conclusion, embryonic stem cells are easily grown in culture. They are rare mature tissue, thus the process of separating them from an adult tissue is a challenge, and the means to expand these cells are yet to be innovated. This distinction is critical since the many cells are required to conduct stem cell replacement therapies. Through research, scientists have reasons to prove that those tissues, which results from the embryonic and those from adult stem cells usually, differ in the likelihood of rejection after transplantation is done. Stem cells and tissues of adults are currently seen to start a rejection after transplantation. This is because cells belonging to as patient are capable of being expanded in culture, coaxed to make them acquire a specialized type of cell, and latter reintroduced back to the patient. The use of tissues and adult stem cells whose origin is the patient’s own adult stem cells would suggest that the cells are prone to rejection by the immune system in the body. This shows a merit as rejection of immune an only be circumvented only by immunosuppressive drugs continuous administration although this drugs also have side effects that are deleterious. Additional research need to be done on the stem cells although there are already research done which act as a useful tool for developing drugs and modeling diseases and scientist have confidence of applying them as transplantation medicine. Viruses are nowadays used to induce reprogramming factors into the cells of an adult. In animal, studies have shown that viruses that are applied to the stem cell factors may lead to cancer.
Stem Cell research has the potential to make an enormous positive impact on the medical community; therefore federal funding should be granted in order to make significant advances in research.
There are many questions regarding stem cell division that remain unsolved. For instance, do all stem cells have the same internal and external signal for cell differentiation? In a bid to answer the question, scientists have found innovative ways to managing stem cell separation in their laboratory experiments, thereby growing tissues and cells that are used for a specified purpose such as screening drugs or cell therapy. An adult stem cell usually generates a type of cell of the tissue it resides. A clear example is a blood producing mature stem cell that is found in the bone marrow usually gives rise to many different kind of blood cells. It is known clearly that the cells that form blood in the bone marrow (hematopoietic stem cell) are unable to give rise to cells that a very different tissue like the nerve cells found in the brains. From experience, it ha been proved that stem cells belonging to one tissue may replicate and produce cell types that belong to a totally special tissue. This poses a note that there is a need for debate in the research field. This argument shows the challenges of taking a study on adult cells and signifying that extra research that applies adult stem cells is quite essential in gaining the understanding of the entire potential of therapies in the future.
Special conditions and factors, which allow stem cells to stay unspecialized, are matters of significant importance to researchers. It took them quite a long time doing trial and errors that enable them learn how they develop and maintain cell without spontaneously differentiating into specific types of cells in the laboratory. For instance, subsequent to the improvement of conditions that enable growing of mouse stem cells, it took almost two decades to get the knowledge on how to grow in the laboratory embryo of human stem cells. Having an understanding of the signals that lead to a stem cell population to reproduce and stay unspecialized until these cells are needed in a mature organism. This information is crucial to scientist to assist him develop a gigantic figure in the laboratory of unspecialized stem cells for future experiments (Dani et al 1279–1285)
Stem Cell Research
This unit, which was designed by teachers in conjunction with scientists, ethicists, and curriculum developers, explores the scientific and ethical issues involved in stem cell research. While exploring the ethics of stem cell research, students will develop an awareness of the many shades of gray that exist among positions of stakeholders in the debate.
Animals in ResearchThrough this curriculum, students are introduced to the complex topic of Animal Research using structured discussion, stakeholder activities, case studies, and the ethical frameworks used by those in support of, and in opposition to, this work. One of the goals of the curriculum is for students to support their own position on this issue through well-reasoned, fact-driven justifications in a classroom atmosphere of respectful dialogue.
For the Greater Good
The “For the Greater Good” series is composed of five featured articles. Each article portrays one author’s personal stories of people and animals whose lives have been improved or saved by medical breakthroughs made possible by animal research. The Curriculum Guide includes a 5-lesson unit outlining the use of models in both science and ethics, and provides resources for exploring the use of animals in research.
Ethical, Social, Political Debate
Embryonic stem cells remain undifferentiated when they are developed under suitable conditions. Nevertheless, if they are allowed to clump they usually form embryoid bodies and begin to separate spontaneously. They are differentiating to form nerve cells, muscles cells, and other type of cell. Although differentiation shows that customs of embryonic stem cells is strong, it is not the best way to generate culture of a type of cell that is specific. To be able to generate culture of specified types of differentiated cells researchers try to manage the separation of the embryonic stem cells. They try to change the work of the customs medium, change the face of the customs dish, or try to change the cell by adding specific genes.
Why are people conducting stem cell research
An embryonic stem cell is derived from embryos. Most of them are derived from those embryos that that grow from eggs that are fertilized in vitro and then taken for the purpose of research after gain the permission of the giver. They are not taken from those eggs whose fertilization occurs at the body of the woman. Cell culture is the process of growing these cells in the laboratory. In a human being, embryonic stem cells are generated by transferring them from pre-implantation of the culture dish into a plastic laboratory that has nutrients broth. These cells divide and separate over the face of the dish. In the inner face of the dish, there is an embryonic skin cells coat of mouse embryonic skin cells that have been taken care of to limit them from dividing. The cell of the mouse at the base of the culture dish offers a sticky surface where they can attach. They also offer nutrients in to the culture medium. Through the research, there has an innovation of growing without using mouse feeder cells embryonic stem cells. This is a considerable advance because the risk that there could be a virus and other macromolecules in the cells of the mouse that may risk being transferred to the cells of a human being.
Their researches have also generated a high level of excitement; they have discovered that the stem cells of the adults are in more tissues than they had thought. This has prompted researchers and clinical officers to researcher whether stem cells of adults can be applied for the transplants. This was found possible, and as adult blood, forming or stem cells of hematopoietic of the adults’ in the bone marrow are used in the transplant for over four decades. They have also proved that these cells are also common in the heart and brain. If this cells variation in the laboratory is controlled, this may be said to the bases for conducting therapies that relate to transplantation.
For and Against
Through the laboratory studies, scientists are able to learn the cells’ essential properties and make them different as compared with particular cell nature. Stem cells are already in use in the laboratories by scientists to monitor new drugs and develop new models that assist in studying normal growth and trace the causes of defects at birth. These researches continue to offer advanced knowledge on how organisms grows and develop from one cell and how replacement of damaged and healthy cells occurs in a mature organism. Stem cell study has proved to be one of the most appealing areas of modern biology, gut due to development of many fields of scientific inquiry this research has continued to raise as many scientific research questions as the new discoveries also emerges. Stem cells have unique features compared with other type of human body cells. All stem cells irrespective of their origin have three common characteristics; they have the capability of separating and replenishing for a considerable lengthy period’ they have unspecialized character. They are capable of giving increase in a specific type of cell found in the human body.
Adult and Embryonic
In the recent past, scientist used to work with two types of stem cells that were derived from animals and human beings. These are the embryonic and the non-embryonic stem cells. They discovered means to get embryonic stem cells from the mouse at its early age. They also conducted in depth study of the natural science of stem cells found in the mouse that led to the discovery of a means to get stem cells from a human embryo and growing those cells in the researcher’s laboratory tests. In 2006, researchers made yet a further penetrate by identifying conditions that would make some specific mature cells be genetically reprogrammed to assume a state of a stem cell nature.