The purpose of the UCI Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy is to foster and conduct basic and policy-relevant research on international migration and other population processes, with a main focus on U.S. immigration. In order to encourage multi-investigator, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary research projects, the Center organizes informal discussions of ideas for future research projects, “brainstorming” sessions about research funding opportunities, “brown-bag” presentations of research findings, and workshops and conferences. Much of the Center’s research focuses on the multigenerational incorporation experiences of immigrant groups in the United States, especially those occurring in diverse contexts such as Southern California. Investigations of this type often devote as much attention to what happens to the children and grandchildren of immigrants as to what happens to immigrants themselves. For more information, visit the .
While addressing the use of video games the statement was made that “Today, in the United States, 91% of children between the ages of 2 and 17 play video games”(Granic, Lobel, Engels).
Jumpstart was established on the UCI campus by Professor Virginia Mann in 2003. Students involved as Jumpstart members are paired with children participating in pre-school programs in the local Orange County area. The purpose is to help young students develop language, literacy, and social skills. Social Sciences undergraduates usually serve with Jumpstart for a full school year. The UCI Jumpstart program recruits, trains, and supervises UCI students to work with Head Start and other early-childhood programs in low-income communities of Orange County.
The pointlessness of these claims becomes clear when we consider the well-known difficulties in determining to what extent inborn structure, maturation, and learning are responsible for the particular form of a skilled or complex performance.31 To take just one example,32 the gaping response of a nestling thrush is at first released by jarring of the nest, and, at a later stage, by a moving object of specific size, shape, and position relative to the nestling. At this later stage the response is directed toward the part of the stimulus object corresponding to the parent’s head, and characterized by a complex configuration of stimuli that can be precisely described. Knowing just this, it would be possible to construct a speculative, learning-theoretic account of how this sequence of behavior patterns might have developed through a process of differential reinforcement, and it would no doubt be possible to train rats to do something similar. However, there appears to be good evidence that these responses to fairly complex “sign stimuli” are genetically determined and mature without learning. Clearly, the possibility cannot be discounted. Consider now the comparable case of a child imitating new words. At an early stage we may find rather gross correspondences. At a later stage, we find that repetition is of course far from exact (i.e., it is not mimicry, a fact which itself is interesting), but that it reproduces the highly complex configuration of sound features that constitute the phonological structure of the language in question. Again, we can propose a speculative account of how this result might have been obtained through elaborate arrangement of reinforcing contingencies. Here too, however, it is possible that ability to select out of the complex auditory input those features that are phonologically relevant may develop largely independently of reinforcement, through genetically determined maturation. To the extent that this is true, an account of the development and causation of behavior that fails to consider the structure of the organism will provide no understanding of the real processes involved.
HABLA is a broad-spectrum Latino-focused educational outreach program based in the School of Social Sciences and created by Professor Virginia Mann in 2000 with the support of the Orange County Children and Families Commission. Its purpose is to increase the school readiness of disadvantaged children ages two–four years, by uniting faculty and students at UCI with the Santa Ana Unified School System, local Families Resource Center, Americorp/VISTA, FACT, and the national Parent Child Home Program (PCHP).
Compare with Criminal, Solider doesn’t have physical characteristics asymmetry of the face or head, large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin....
Christakis and Zimmerman (2009) believe there are three reasons why it is important to study the effects of media on very young children. First, young brains undergo rapid changes during the first three years of life. External stimuli are known to influence neurological development and to set patterns for life. Therefore the quality and quantity of stimulation that young children are exposed to, carries lifelong cognitive effects. It is worth noting that Christakis and Zimmerman (2009) estimate that children three years and younger are watching an average of one to three hours of television per day. Second, the more television young children watch, the more television they will demand to watch in subsequent years. Third, Christakis and Zimmerman (2009) explain that although certain programs have been shown to be appropriate for preschoolers, other programs and videos have been found to put young children’s cognitive and behavioral development at risk.
Okuma and Tanimura (2009) report that pediatricians in Japan recently declared that delayed language development and impaired social skills such as not speaking, lack of expression, or eye contact are found in young children with heavy television and video watching habits. These statements corroborate their findings. Okuma and Tanimura (2009) found that children who have a habit of heavy television watching were more likely to show delayed language development. Okuma and Tanimura (2009) also found that children who watched television alone were more likely to show delayed speech. These children displayed less language comprehension, pointing behavior, and fine motor ability (Okuma & Tanimura, 2009).
DeLoache and Chiong (2009) report that television programs and videos serve a variety of purposes for parents. Some parents consider them a safe activity to keep young children occupied which frees parents to do chores, prepare a meal, or get ready for work. For some parents, video and television serve educational purposes. These parents believe that young children can learn numbers, the alphabet, and foreign languages at an early age through video. Other parents believe that when children are fussy or quarreling with siblings, videos calm them down. Lastly, some parents use videos and television as rewards and incentives for good behavior (DeLoache & Chiong, 2009).
Concerns about the effects of television on attention first arose in the 1970’s after the release of Sesame Street (Courage & Setliff, 2009). Since then, researchers have found that television, which is highly stimulating, reduces attention, reading ability, and levels of concentration (Courage & Setliff, 2009). However, most of these studies involve older children. Recently the interest in studying very young children increased and studies began to emerge (Christakis, Zimmerman, DiGiuseppe & McCarty, 2004).
There is a variety of other kinds of evidence that has been offered to challenge the view that drive reduction is necessary for learning. Results on sensory-sensory conditioning have been interpreted as demonstrating learning without drive reduction.25 Olds has reported reinforcement by direct stimulation of the brain, from which he concludes that reward need not satisfy a physiological need or withdraw a drive stimulus.26 The phenomenon of imprinting, long observed by zoologists, is of particular interest in this connection. Some of the most complex patterns of behavior of birds, in particular, are directed towards objects and animals of the type to which they have been exposed at certain critical early periods of life.27 Imprinting is the most striking evidence for the innate disposition of the animal to learn in a certain direction and to react appropriately to patterns and objects of certain restricted types, often only long after the original learning has taken place. It is, consequently, unrewarded learning, though the resulting patterns of behavior may be refined through reinforcement. Acquisition of the typical songs of song birds is, in some cases, a type of imprinting. Thorpe reports studies that show “that some characteristics of the normal song have been learned in the earliest youth, before the bird itself is able to produce any kind of full song.”28 The phenomenon of imprinting has recently been investigated under laboratory conditions and controls with positive results.29