Attakullakulla’s son waged warfare against the intruders, but his was the minority opinion among the Cherokee. Attakullakulla’s niece married a white trader and distinguished herself in battle against the Creek. She sought peace with the whites and even warned them about the plans of Attakullakulla’s son. In the big picture, guerilla warfare by tribal minorities provided justification of slaughter and dispossession of entire tribes. When the northern delegation came in 1776, Attakullakulla’s son gladly accepted the war belts, while the Cherokee elders held a sad silence. By 1777, rebel colonists had overrun the Cherokee once more and launched extermination raids against Cherokee villages, mostly neutral ones. The elders then sued for peace, and signed a treaty at gunpoint that gave up nearly all of their lands in the Carolinas. Another treaty in 1781 took more land. Most Native American tribes sided with the British, or more properly, the rebel colonists. Not the Cherokee.
Even though early “settlers” ran off and lived with the natives, and had high appreciation for the native way of life, and the spectacle of the “Unredeemed Captive” played itself out in the early 18th century, by the time of the American Revolution, the new elites had carved out estates in the settled east and were the forerunners of today’s Eastern Establishment. The opportunities for free land and dreams of estates lay on the frontiers of English/British encroachment, and were pursued by the losers of colonial life. Trappers, traders, and soldiers were the early English vanguard, followed by settlers. While frontiersmen might wear buckskins and take native wives, they rarely thought like Indians, and native behavior toward nature was in stark contrast to how frontiersmen behaved. Eastern North America was completely deforested by those frontier settlers, which wiped out both native humans and animals. White invaders would rarely make enlightened contact with the natives, and the genocidal aspirations in letters to his men (a sentiment that was missing in his writings about his French adversaries) were more literate versions of the scalp-hunting attitudes of frontier settlers.
Fraud, corruption, and exploitation were the facts of life in colonial Mexico, and natives always bore the brunt of it. The legal system was rigged to favor the Spaniards. One of the few honest lawyers in New Spain suggested a method to reduce the fraud and corruption: keep Spanish lawyers out of the natives’ business.
The Catholic Church was a major player in New Spain's transformation. Church-owned monasteries, haciendas, obrajes, and other institutions dotted the landscape. Natives were required to give tribute to the church, and many priests became rich. For every friar who sincerely believed in his holy mission, others kept concubines, solicited women during confessionals, drank heavily, fed people to their dogs, and so on. As with monastic wineries in Europe, New Spain's versions often made pulque, although many priests tried stamping out drunkenness. The Jesuit hacienda of San Xavier was devoted almost exclusively to making pulque (it sold more than six million pounds of it in 1770), and had one of the highest incomes of any hacienda.
Spaniards remade the New World's ecological systems. Imported cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and donkeys dominated the landscape. Chickens became a barnyard staple. Sugar, bananas, and citrus fruits were introduced and flourished. In many places, the landscape was altered beyond recognition. Spain was a land of shepherds and cattle ranchers, and many farmers in Spain were put out of business as the rich, herd-owning, land-owning aristocracy obtained the legal rights for their livestock to overrun the land. Spain's great herds helped make it such an arid land, and the same thing happened to New Spain. South of the great bison herds of North America, there were no large roaming herds of grazing animals. Huge tracts of farmland were destroyed throughout the New World by those imported European grazers, and areas previously cultivated or unused were quickly destroyed, leaving a desert-like environment behind. In Spain, sheep dominated. In New Spain, cattle dominated. Deforestation and mass grazing altered the landscape immensely. In a and eastern Atlantic islands, Spaniards noted that when they razed the forests for their lifestyles, streams dried up and eventually there was less rainfall. The desert-like environment of Mexico is not completely natural, but is partly the result of Spanish depredations. Not only was 75-90% of the human population exterminated, the first century of the Spanish invasion was also the greatest ecological catastrophe for native plants and animals in history, rivaled, and in ways exceeded, by what the English and Americans would later do to North America.
The Spanish soldiers who conquered the New World mainly came from the peasant class. The New World's soldierly leaders were generally , which was the lowest form of Spanish nobility and meant that an ancestor did well in battle against Moors. From the moment they discovered the naked women of the Caribbean, they were like brutal kids in candy stores. Raping native women was perhaps the favorite pastime of Spanish soldiers, from 1492 until the 1800s, which is where the huge mestizo class of Latin America came from. Their role models were the grandees of Spain, who were rich landowners that did not take off their hats in the king's presence. The merchant and skilled classes of Spain were significantly composed of Jews and Moors, but they were run out of the country, which helped set the stage for Spain's decline in comparison to its European rivals.
Slightly preceding and concurrent with silver mining in South America, the region’s coca plantations were native death factories. Life expectancy on the plantations was measured in months. Aztecs had an alcoholic drink called pulque, made from fermented cactus. Drinking pulque was generally forbidden in Aztec society before Cortés "discovered" them. After the conquest, getting drunk became the native pastime as they underwent the of being conquered, enslaved, and their culture actively attacked by the Spanish priests, in an attempt to eradicate their culture and turn them into "good Spaniards."
Las Casas’s , published in 1552, quickly became a runaway bestseller, especially in Protestant Northern Europe. That began the “Black Legend,” and in 1559 the Church began publishing its infamous , its list of banned books that lasted until the 1960s.
The English also joined the spice trade, and in 1622 an English-Persian expedition seized Ormuz from Portugal, in present day Oman, at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Dutch imperial supremacy did not last long. With the devastating Thirty Years’ War ending in 1648, it did not take England and the Netherlands long to begin a new series of wars; the first began in 1652, and the wars lasted until 1684. The Dutch prevailed but lost to France on the Continent. In 1664, the New Amsterdam colony in North America was lost to the English, but it had other gains. The peak of the Dutch East India Company’s supremacy was around 1669. The Dutch East India Company was a direct forerunner to modern corporations, was a combination of corporation and state, and owning shares of its stock was a lucrative proposition, for a while. The French East India Company entered the fray in 1675 with its outpost at Bombay.
By 1510, the Caribbean was being to keep Española's gold mines and plantations running. Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Bahamas’ indigenous human populations were soon extinct or virtually so, and slavers were almost certainly visiting the Florida natives. The Spaniards then struck out and invaded the Caribbean's periphery. They invaded Florida, Panama, and South America, looking for slaves and gold. For the first time, the Spaniards encountered armed native resistance, and numerous ended in disaster. More often, however, the Spaniards easily conquered and enslaved the natives.
Jamestown was about to be abandoned in 1610 when ships arrived with veterans of the bloody Irish wars. “Going native” was a capital crime to the English overlords, and in 1610 Jamestown governor Thomas West, known as Lord De La Warr (the state of Delaware is named after him), demanded that Powhatan hand over those English runaways. When Powhatan refused the demand, the English launched several exterminatory raids that wiped out entire villages, and concluded one particularly savage day by executing the children of the village’s chief.
Spanish invasions were called , and invaded Florida in 1527 on the Gulf side, landing in Tampa Bay and outrunning the Spanish reputation in southern Florida. The natives that the Narváez expedition encountered were generally timid or friendly, and although the Spaniards did plenty to provoke the natives, it rarely became violent. That was doomed by its incompetence, not native resistance.