Here are 20 interesting and informative articles about water published recently that discuss topics like water supply, water conservation, desalination, and droughts.
Water pollution, discharge of effluents and unsafe drinking water are factors among others that pose a threat to human wellbeing and Pakistan’s ecosystem. While some do not have water to drink, others waste it in vast quantities. Witness the women carrying water on their heads for miles in the scorching heat on one hand, and crops under flood irrigation and the cars of the rich being hosed down in the cities, on the other.
“Thanks in part to the epic ongoing drought, the city’s main water supply just hit a frightening new milestone low this week. According to Bureau of Reclamation data as of June 2, there’s never been so little water behind Hoover Dam since its construction in the 1930s. That’s a problem, because Vegas gets 90 percent of its water from Lake Mead.”
The system stability is guaranteed under the most uncertain condition and it was found that the water supply system with uncertainty can be a useful tool to assist decision makers to develop future water supply schemes.
Decisions are comprised of sizing decisions - pipe diameter, pump design capacity and head, canal capacity, and water/wastewater treatment capabilities - and flow allocations over the water supply network.
Irrigation equipment upgrades can be costly, but there is no question that it will be worth it in the long run. The reality of an ever-shrinking water supply in the face of growing needs will become more evident, and eventually the true cost of water will emerge.
The focus of this dissertation is to develop mathematical models and optimization algorithms for water supply system planning, where the interaction of different system components is explicitly considered.
The most efficient irrigation system will depend on the type of crop, the type of soil, area climate and other factors. Gravity-flow systems and irrigation systems are just two examples of possible solutions for more efficient water use. Using can help measure and control the amount of water being used in irrigation.
A deterministic nonlinear programming model is proposed at first to decide pipe and pump sizes in a regional water supply system for satisfying given potable and non-potable user demands over a certain planning horizon.
Some farmers may be inclined to set an automated irrigation schedule and let it run regardless of the weather. Adjusting irrigation systems to work in better harmony with natural precipitation takes more work, but it is an inarguable way to save significant amounts of water.
There are available that provide up-to-the-second precipitation reports. Using these along with irrigation systems can help save water, which will save farmers money and reduce wear and tear on systems.
Besides the need to exploit alternative water sources to the conventional surface and groundwater supplies, such as reclaimed water, a systematic point of view has to be taken for the efficient management of all potential water resources, so that issues of water supply, storage, treatment and reuse are not considered separately, but rather in the context of their interactions.
To handle uncertainty in the planning process, a stochastic programming (SP) model and a robust optimization (RO) model are successively proposed to deal with random water supply and demand and the risk of facility failure, respectively.
“Scientists extended Utah’s climate record back to 1429 using tree rings. They found Utah’s climate has seen extreme droughts, including one that lasted 16 years. If history is repeated in the rapidly growing Western states, the water supply would run out based on current consumption.”
When this long range water supply plan is developed to cope with future water demand changes, accuracy and reliability are the two most important factors.