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This cycle repeats until the C16 palmitoyl-ACP is formed.

In this study a pathway for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum has been identified, using microsomes that had been preconditioned by depleting their endogenous substrates and then fusing them with biotinylated phosphatidylserine liposomes containing CoASH and Mg2+.

Triglyceride (TAG) synthesis during nitrogen starvation and recovery was addressed using Coccomyxa subellipsoidea by analyzing acyl-chain composition and redistribution using a bioreactor-controlled time course. Galactolipids, phospholipids and TAGs were profiled using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). TAG levels increased linearly through 10. days of N starvation to a final concentration of 12.6% dry weight (DW), while chloroplast membrane lipids decreased from 5% to 1.5% DW. The relative quantities of TAG molecular species, differing in acyl chain length and glycerol backbone position, remained unchanged from 3 to 10. days of N starvation. Six TAG species comprised approximately half the TAG pool. An average of 16.5% of the acyl chains had two or more double bonds consistent with their specific transfer from membrane lipids to TAGs during N starvation. The addition of nitrate following 10. days of N starvation resulted in a dramatic shift from chloroplast-derived to endoplasmic reticulum-derived galactolipids (from 40%). A model for TAG synthesis in C. subellipsoidea was developed based on the acquired data and known plant pathways and data presented.

T1 - Physiological and nutritional regulation of enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis

The Tricarboxylic AcidCycle is an example of a cyclic pathway.

Biosynthesis of purines and of some amino acidsareexamplesof divergent pathways.

Synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids
Glycerol is the starting material in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. CDP-diacylglycerol is the activated intermediate of this pathway. Sphingolipids are synthesized from palmitoyl CoA and serine, initially to form ceramide. Sphingomyelins and glycolipids are synthesized from ceramide. Various sphingolipids storage diseases are resulted due to hereditary absence of hydrolytic enzymes.

Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins. Fatty acids are activated, transported across mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine transporter. β -oxidation of saturated fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, excessive ketone bodies are formed, leading to ketosis. Fatty acid biosynthesis takes place in the cytosol of cells. Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the precursor of fatty acid synthesis as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to deposition of cholesterol plaques in the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are synthesized from twenty carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Phosphatidic acid is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. In sphingolipids, sphingosine is present as an alcohol.

This acetyl co-A reaches thecitric acid cycle next.

The energy yield per cycle is 5 mols of ATP for each round, 2 mols per FADH2 (goes into complex II) and 3 mols per NADH/H+ (goes into complex I).

This energy in turn is required by the body to synthesize new proteins, nucleicacids (,) etc.

Pyruvate is an intermediate in severalmetabolic pathways, but the majority is converted to acetyl-CoA and fed intothe citric acid cycle or the Kreb’s cycle.

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The full cycle is therefore as follows:


The Krebs cycle istherefore a most important concept of biochemistry.

T1 - Triacylglycerol synthesis during nitrogen stress involves the prokaryotic lipid synthesis pathway and acyl chain remodeling in the microalgae Coccomyxa subellipsoidea

a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis

N2 - Although triacylglycerol stores play the critical role in an organism's ability to withstand fuel deprivation and are strongly associated with such disorders as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerotic heart disease, information concerning the enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis, their regulation by hormones, nutrients, and physiological conditions, their mechanisms of action, and the roles of specific isoforms has been limited by a lack of cloned cDNAs and purified proteins. Fortunately, molecular tools for several key enzymes in the synthetic pathway are becoming available. This review summarizes recent studies of these enzymes, their regulation under varying physiological conditions, their purported roles in synthesis of triacylglycerol and related glycerolipids, the possible functions of different isoenzymes, and the evidence for specialized cellular pools of triacylglycerol and glycerolipid intermediates.

Triglyceride Synthesis by DGAT1 Protects Adipocytes …

The mono- and diacylglycerides are metabolic intermediates in phospholipid synthesis, while the triacylglycerol (or triglycerides) are the fat molecules used to store chemical energy in a water free, compact state.

Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) - biosynthesis and …

AB - Although triacylglycerol stores play the critical role in an organism's ability to withstand fuel deprivation and are strongly associated with such disorders as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerotic heart disease, information concerning the enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis, their regulation by hormones, nutrients, and physiological conditions, their mechanisms of action, and the roles of specific isoforms has been limited by a lack of cloned cDNAs and purified proteins. Fortunately, molecular tools for several key enzymes in the synthetic pathway are becoming available. This review summarizes recent studies of these enzymes, their regulation under varying physiological conditions, their purported roles in synthesis of triacylglycerol and related glycerolipids, the possible functions of different isoenzymes, and the evidence for specialized cellular pools of triacylglycerol and glycerolipid intermediates.

Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis in Eukaryotic Microalgae

N2 - Triglyceride (TAG) synthesis during nitrogen starvation and recovery was addressed using Coccomyxa subellipsoidea by analyzing acyl-chain composition and redistribution using a bioreactor-controlled time course. Galactolipids, phospholipids and TAGs were profiled using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). TAG levels increased linearly through 10. days of N starvation to a final concentration of 12.6% dry weight (DW), while chloroplast membrane lipids decreased from 5% to 1.5% DW. The relative quantities of TAG molecular species, differing in acyl chain length and glycerol backbone position, remained unchanged from 3 to 10. days of N starvation. Six TAG species comprised approximately half the TAG pool. An average of 16.5% of the acyl chains had two or more double bonds consistent with their specific transfer from membrane lipids to TAGs during N starvation. The addition of nitrate following 10. days of N starvation resulted in a dramatic shift from chloroplast-derived to endoplasmic reticulum-derived galactolipids (from 40%). A model for TAG synthesis in C. subellipsoidea was developed based on the acquired data and known plant pathways and data presented.

Mammalian Triacylglycerol Metabolism: Synthesis, …

AB - Triglyceride (TAG) synthesis during nitrogen starvation and recovery was addressed using Coccomyxa subellipsoidea by analyzing acyl-chain composition and redistribution using a bioreactor-controlled time course. Galactolipids, phospholipids and TAGs were profiled using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). TAG levels increased linearly through 10. days of N starvation to a final concentration of 12.6% dry weight (DW), while chloroplast membrane lipids decreased from 5% to 1.5% DW. The relative quantities of TAG molecular species, differing in acyl chain length and glycerol backbone position, remained unchanged from 3 to 10. days of N starvation. Six TAG species comprised approximately half the TAG pool. An average of 16.5% of the acyl chains had two or more double bonds consistent with their specific transfer from membrane lipids to TAGs during N starvation. The addition of nitrate following 10. days of N starvation resulted in a dramatic shift from chloroplast-derived to endoplasmic reticulum-derived galactolipids (from 40%). A model for TAG synthesis in C. subellipsoidea was developed based on the acquired data and known plant pathways and data presented.

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