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A predominant hypothesis to explain this pattern is that ..

Asymmetric apparent competition generally arises when the availability of a preferred prey type has a stronger positive effect on the predator's equilibrium density, thereby indirectly increasing predator effects on prey that exert lesser positive effects on the predator, but preferred prey have superior properties (e.g. lower vulnerability) for mitigating predator effects (). Currently, we lack the natural history information required to suggest more explicit mechanisms explaining asymmetric apparent competition between shrimps. An alternative hypothesis to apparent competition is that Pandalus prey on EUHEL and rockfish indirectly benefit EUHEL by having a direct negative effect on Pandalus. Observations of Pandalus predation on smaller shrimps in aquaria () suggest that this hypothesis is plausible, yet we found only a weak and seasonally limited direct negative effect of Pandalus on EUHEL (see ); by contrast, evidence for apparent competition was strong for all non-winter periods. Indirect amensalism provides another alternative hypothesis, whereby only one prey attracts a shared predator while a second prey does not, but both incur negative effects from the shared predator (). Our data, however, do not support indirect amensalism because coefficients were positive for both Pandalus-to-rockfish and EUHEL-to-rockfish direct paths.

NSERC Canada and the Howe Sound Research and Conservation Group provided funding. Wendy Palen, Jon Shurin, Nick Dulvy, Mike Heithaus, Anne Beaudreau, Michelle Paddack, Carolyn Huston, John Boulanger and anonymous referees provided substantial feedback. Divers Donna Gibbs, Kevin Kaufman, and Justin Lisaingo made essential fieldwork contributions.

In most studies that tested or evaluated trophic-group amensalism, ..

Research posters at the SAA meeting. Rat Islands Research Project

2. trophic group amensalism

1. Name and explain two of the older hypotheses for thediversityof the deep-sea benthos, and describe newer evidence
that seems to refute each of them (4 points)

2. Biotic factors
a. Competition
(1) Direct -- contact between organisms or the direct interference
(a) - spacecompetition; not as common in soft sediments asin hard
(b) Can be direct aggression
(2) Indirect -- one organism prevents resource use by the other
(a) more common in soft sediments
(b) trophic group amensalism -- exclusion of a trophic group byanother's modification of the environment

Biological interaction - Wikipedia

Our research on the effect of changes in organic matter, nutrient and water fluxes on estuarine trophic structure and production requires that we evaluate variability in land and ocean drivers and assess the spatial and temporal scales over which the effects of these changes are likely to operate.

2. trophic group amensalism

I would like you to kindly assist me with coming up with a conceptual framework for my research paper on conceptual and theoretical framework,

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Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal ..

Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in ..

1. Name and explain two of the older hypotheses for thediversityof the deep-sea benthos, and describe newer evidence
that seems to refute each of them (4 points)

Chapter 10 Integrating nutritional physiology and ..

Theoretical frameworks for research papers provide a handy model for conducting research and analyzing research results. These frameworks act as a sort of lens

integrating nutritional physiology and ecology to ..

Tidal flats commonly exhibit rapid changes in temperature related to periodic subaerial exposure. Several studies of modern environments have documented the relationships between temperature and animal-sediment interactions (e.g., Green and Hobson, 1970; Yeo and Risk, 1981; Aitken et al., 1988). However, application of these concepts to the study of fossil cases is still in its infancy. Commonly, the high-intertidal zone in tropical environments is an extremely inhospitable habitat for marine organisms due to very high temperatures, long time of exposure, and abnormal salinities. As a consequence, the highest density of biogenic structures in tropical tidal flats is in the lower-intertidal zone (Terwindt, 1988). On the other hand, tidal flats in colder areas may exhibit a high density of biogenic structures in the upper-intertidal zone (e.g., Yeo and Risk, 1981). Therefore, bathymetric displacement of certain species along latitudinal gradients is common (Reise, 1985). For example, the bivalve lives in intertidal areas in northern North America and in subtidal areas in the south to avoid the hazards of high temperatures on tidal flats (Green and Hobson, 1970). Aitken et al. (1988) documented biogenic structures in modern subarctic tidal flats and noted a dominance of vertical domiciles of bivalves and polychaetes. These authors compared subarctic and temperate tidal flats in terms of biogenic structures and noted that some forms, such as , were abundant in temperate tidal flats but absent from subarctic intertidal areas.

Practice Questions for Exam 2 -- Answers at ..

The other important point about substrate is that animals are not passive to the physical properties of the sediment, but actually can substantially modify substrate attributes (Bromley, 1996). Woodin and Jackson (1979) and Woodin (1983) classified organisms into functional groups according to the effects, both direct and indirect, on the properties of the surrounding sediment, and the manner in which they make the environment more or less suitable for colonization by other organisms. Reise (1985) identified stabilization as promoting biologic interactions, whereas no benthic species will benefit directly from sediment destabilization. On this basis, two main functional groups can be distinguished: sediment stabilizers and sediment destabilizers. Mobile, mostly detritus-feeder infauna and epifauna, but also some sedentary organisms, whose feeding and defecation activities may provide abundant particles in suspension, destabilize the substrate (Rhoads and Young, 1970; Rhoads, 1974). In contrast, sedentary organisms that build mucus-lined tubes within the sediment reduce resuspension and erosion, and represent sediment stabilizers. For example, the tubebuilding polychaete worm acts like the steel reinforcing rods in concrete and increase the rigidity and stability of the sand (Jones and Jago, 1993). Rhoads and Young (1970) proposed that one feeding group may affect negatively another trophic group to the point of making life impossible for the affected group. The expected result of trophic amensalism is that where deposit feeders are abundant, development of suspension feeders is limited. In this framework, Reise (1985) explained the incompatibility of dense assemblages of organisms in the sand flats of Konigshafen in the North Sea.

Practice Questions for Exam 2 -- Answers at bottom of ..

At Waverly, bivalves that constructed mucus-lined, U-shaped burrows (), together with worms that produced lined vertical domiciles, most likely acted as sediment stabilizers. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from preferential concentration of these structures in small mounds (fig. 64A-B), resulting in the peculiar microtopography of some bedding surfaces. In contrast, dense concentrations of mobile detritus-feeding nuculanid bivalves (tracemakers of and ) may have acted as sediment destabilizers. Additionally, dense assemblages of may have changed significantly the nature of the substrate, encapsulating within the sediment significant amounts of defecation products. The intruding up-and-down movements of the tracemaker may have played a destabilizing role, particularly in some dense assemblages. Especially in the mud- and mixed-flat zones, microbial binding may have contributed significantly to stabilize the sediment because microbial mats shelter the substrate against erosion (see "Interpretation" of unit A1).

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