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Controlling quackgrass in gardens

The University of Arizona scientists have recently joined the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration. DUNE will be studying neutrinos and its antiparticle, antineutrinos, with the hope of answering the long-standing question of why the universe is matter dominated. DUNE will also be looking for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae which will provide crucial information about the formation of neutron stars or black holes.

Redding continued, "They were able to get the diffraction quality from a resolution of ~10 Å to 2-2.5 Å in a few years of very hard work ... and then came the Herculean task of solving the structure. Chris started with a very stripped down model of what the RC might look like, based on expected similarities with the cyanobacterial Photosystem I, and then worked constantly on it for months. He had to teach himself new software and work long nights to get there. Once he had something that was looking real, Raimund was able to take that and push it to the next level. And working together they have produced a truly beautiful structure at very high resolution."

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Repeat this Experiment:


In another experiment, Ingenhousz, placed a small green aquatic plant in a transparent container of water and exposed the container to bright sunlight.

Redding and Golbeck had decided 8 years ago to join forces to tackle the heliobacterial RC. They combined their individual Department of Energy grants into a joint grant, which has since been renewed twice: the third iteration started a year ago. Fromme officially joined the group about 4 years ago, although he had been previously working on crystallography of the RC with Iosifina Sarrou, a postdoctoral fellow in the Redding group who had optimized its purification. The work truly took off when Christopher Gisriel, a doctoral student in the Redding group, started working with Fromme to crystallize the RC.

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One reason for that conclusion involves greasy molecules called quinones, which help transfer electrons in photosynthetic reaction centers. Every reaction center studied so far uses bound quinones as intermediates at some point in the electron transfer process. In photosystem I, the quinones on both sides are tightly bound; in photosystem II, they are tightly bound on one side, but loosely bound on the other. But that’s not the case in the heliobacterium reaction center: Redding, Fromme and Gisriel did not find permanently bound quinones among the electron transfer chain’s stepping stones at all. That most likely means its quinones, although still involved in receiving electrons, are mobile and able to diffuse through the membrane. The system might send electrons to them when another, more energetically efficient molecule isn’t available.

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Graphene, which is just one atom thick, is strong, highly flexible, electrically conductive and transparent, making it ideal for gathering the sun’s energy to generate power, the scientists said on Thursday.

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He allowed the system to stand in sunlight for two or three days.


It must have breathed, fouling the air.

Teams around the world are working to develop flexible versions of synthetic skin that can feel by mimicking the different kinds of sensory receptors found in human skin.

And in order to purify the air plants need light.


LONDON (Reuters) – Scientists have found a way to power an experimental kind of electronic skin using solar energy in a further step towards the development of prosthetic limbs or robots with a sense of touch.

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When the system was placed in darkness, the bubbles stopped.

This cave fish climbs waterfalls—that’s right, it actually walks. It moves one fin in front of the other like an awkward lizard. And that movement could teach us a lot about how our fishy ancestors learned to walk.

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Meanwhile, Redding and his team have just begun artificially converting the symmetric reaction center of heliobacteria into an asymmetrical one, following in the footsteps of two researchers in Japan, Hirozo Oh-Oka of Osaka University and Chihiro Azai of Ritsumeikan University, who have spent more than a decade doing this in another type of photosynthetic bacterium. The groups believe their work will clarify how these adaptations would have occurred in real life in the distant past.

Evolution Is Slower Than It Looks and Faster Than You Think

Rutherford and his colleagues, for example, are using a “reverse evolution” technique: They hope to predict the sequences of missing-link reaction centers, using structural information like Redding’s to gain an understanding of their architecture. They then plan to synthesize those hypothetical ancestral sequences and test how they evolve.

Read a profile of Brian Enquist in the (pdf file)

Some researchers aren’t waiting for the publication of the next structure. This one took seven years, after all. They’re pursuing synthetic experimentation instead.

Funding support: Graduate student: Key collaborators: ,

Brian Enquist's lab investigates how functional constraints at the level of the individual (anatomical and physiological) influence larger scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. He is broadly trained plant ecologist. His lab uses both theoretical, computational, biophysical and physiological approaches to address integrative questions related to (1) the evolution of form and functional diversity; (2) the origin of allometric relationships (how characteristics of organisms change with their size) and the scaling of biological processes - 'from cells to ecosystems'; (3) the evolution of life-history and allocation strategies; and (4) community ecology and macroecology. His research also includes the monitoring of long-term dynamics of growth and change within a tropical forest in the Area de Conservation, Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

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