In mechanical speech synthesis reed pipes were mainly used for the generation of the voice. The organ stop "vox humana" played a central role for this concept. Historical documents report that the "vox humana " sounded like human vowels. In this study tones of four different "voces humanae " were recorded to investigate the similarity to human vowels. The acoustical and perceptual analysis revealed that some though not all tones show a high similarity to selected vowels. Index Terms: vowel synthesis, historical instruments 1.
The connection between a specific vowel sound and the geometry of the vocal tract was found by Willis in 1838 (Schroeder 1993). He synthesized different vowels with tube resonators like organ pipes. He also discovered that the vowel quality depended only on the length of the tube and not on its diameter.
The first formant synthesizer, PAT (Parametric Artificial Talker), was introduced by Walter Lawrence in 1953 (Klatt 1987). PAT consisted of three electronic formant resonators connected in parallel. The input signal was either a buzz or noise. A moving glass slide was used to convert painted patterns into six time functions to control the three formant frequencies, voicing amplitude, fundamental frequency, and noise amplitude (track ). At about the same time Gunnar Fant introduced the first cascade formant synthesizer OVE I (Orator Verbis Electris) which consisted of formant resonators connected in cascade (track ). Ten years later, in 1962, Fant and Martony introduced an improved OVE II synthesizer, which consisted of separate parts to model the transfer function of the vocal tract for vowels, nasals, and obstruent consonants. Possible excitations were voicing, aspiration noise, and frication noise. The OVE projects were followed by OVE III and GLOVE at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Sweden, and the present commercial Infovox system is originally descended from these (Carlson et al. 1981, Barber et al. 1989, Karlsson et al. 1993).
- Monophonic Bass Synthesizer
- 6x2 Synthesiser Engines, 10x2 Filter Engines
- Analog Sync, FM, Sample Transformer, Spectromat, Saw Regiment, Phase Stressor
- Vowel Filter Mode
- Free Signal Flow for 2 Oscillators, Filters and Distortions.
- Incredibly versatile modulation system
- Multi FX Knob/Sequencer
- powerful Preset Browser with tagging and rating
- Full MIDI Support (Virtual, Network, External)
- Music Library Access (Transformer Oscillator)
- iTunes File Sharing
- Inter-App Audio
- Ableton Link
DJ Mag: “It is decidedly digital-sounding, but not in a bad way, and as the growing list of fans proves, it can be turned to good use in just about any electronic genre, past, present and (probably) future.”
Producer Spot: “Very good for his complexity, very versatile and easy to use if you need sub bass sound for your productions.
The first full electrical synthesis device was introduced by Stewart in 1922 (Klatt 1987). The synthesizer had a buzzer as excitation and two resonant circuits to model the acoustic resonances of the vocal tract. The machine was able to generate single static vowel sounds with two lowest formants, but not any consonants or connected utterances. Same kind of synthesizer was made by Wagner (Flanagan 1972). The device consisted of four electrical resonators connected in parallel and it was excited by a buzz-like source. The outputs of the four resonators were combined in the proper amplitudes to produce vowel spectra. In 1932 Japanese researchers Obata and Teshima discovered the third formant in vowels (Schroeder 1993). The three first formants are generally considered to be enough for intelligible synthetic speech.