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Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

Initiation: RNA polymerase (enzyme) attaches to the promoter site to start RNA synthesis
Step One toward making a protein -- DNA is "transcribed" to RNA.
Translation: mRNA to Protein
mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm
Transcription & Translation
DNA is the map for building proteins in the body.

Ribonucleic Acid -- it has a ribose sugar and uses the same bases as DNA EXCEPT it replaces Uracil for Thymine.
RNA makes a copy of the DNA strand in order to transport the "code" out of the nucleus to the ribosome (site of protein synthesis).

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Translation - zeroBio

Protein Synthesis Steps - Protein Synthesis

Translation elongation is second in protein synthesis steps

For initiation of the translation process, the ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon recognized by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome then proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, the complexes formed by amino acids are linked to tRNA, sub sequentially to bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complimentary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptide sequences dictated by the DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, release factor binds to the stop codon, thus terminating the translation stage and completing the protein synthesis process. The complete polypeptide is released from the .

The amino acids are joined to form proteins by peptide bonds. The formation of peptide bonds requires a good amount of energy. Therefore, in the first phase of translation for protein synthesis, the amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and linked to their cognate tRNA (transfer RNA). This process is called as charging of the tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA. If two such charged tRNA are brought close enough, the formation of peptide bond between them is favored energetically. This function occurs inside the , as it contains two sites for subsequent amino acids to bind to and thus be close enough for bonding.

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Overview

The process of polymerization of amino acids to form a polypeptide is called as Translation. It is the second and final step of protein synthesis. The order into which the amino acids are arranged is defined by the bases in mRNA (messenger). Ribosome is the cellular factory responsible for the protein synthesis. The ribosome consists of structural RNAs and about 80 different . It is in inactive stage and exists as two subunits, one large and other small. The synthesis of begins when the small subunit encounters an mRNA. The ribosome also acts as a catalyst for the formation of bonds.

Includes all the major steps of Protein Synthesis and a quiz at the end

During transcription what bases will match up with a DNA strand of TGCCTAA?
3 Steps of Translation
Check yourself:
Draw a diagram of translation:
Include the following parts and label them in your diagram:
tRNA with amino acids
peptide bonds
newly formed polypeptide
One last question:
How will we get from the chain of amino acids to the functioning protein?

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What Is Protein Synthesis - Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary

Integrate all aspects of protein synthesis into one process including the organelles

The End
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