High school English class prepared me for the editing of my essays, for example, grammatical errors, spelling, font errors, and things that were under the category of fixing my paper.
This part is the body of the ESL Essay.
The summary of the arguments and the restatement of the overall point of view that has been
Our actual ability to produce the existence of objects is not by means of representation alone, but by means of will, otherwise the existence of objects is "given" to us (a "sensible intuition").
For example, an informative essay about the dangers of smoking could have a much different tone that a descriptive essay about the effects of smoking on the body.
Further experimental evidence is required to disclose the kindof controls which will be most effective, most humane, and mostprotective of personal life and freedom. Then as people learn theleast obtrusive and most effective means for making humanactivity conform to biological necessity, moral attention can bedirected to the narrower human concerns. Human beings and theirdescendants can learn how best to realize the evolving potentialof being human. Moral effort will no longer be wasted in thefutile attempt to enforce the of acceptedideals and moral principles as if they were necessary andimmutable. When thus grounded in the nature and needs of liferather than in the abstract relationships between the elements ofan system of thought, ethics can take its placeamong all the other human endeavors -- science, medicine,technology, art, music, and literature.
Hardin has correctly noted that nature has devised the meansby which "to commensurate the incommensurables," thatis, to resolve the conflicting needs and interests of all of theEarth's various life forms. For example, natural selectionhas allowed some animals to find their niche by being short-livedbut highly prolific. Others compete by being large, long-lived,and highly protective of their few offspring.
Ecosystems have their own dynamic structure. Feedbackmechanisms have evolved to maintain their stability. For example,one species may become dominant and take over much of the landand most of the biological resources in some ecosystem. Andcontinued growth may have no destabilizing effects for quite sometime. But as more and more of the system's biological wealthis concentrated in the bodies and artifacts of an exuberantspecies, other species evolve the means to utilize the abundantfood source. Then as the newly adapted predators increase innumber, they reduce the population of the prolific species. If,however, such controls should fail, the continued growth of anyorganism at some point will begin to stress the ecosystem whichsustains that organism. Finally the additional stress ofcontinued growth will make the system collapse, suddenly andapparently without warning. Nature does control any exuberantspecies either by drastically reducing its population or by itsextinction.
Nature also controls the fertility of prolific andirresponsible parents by letting their excess offspring die ofneglect, disease, or starvation. In addition, the excesspopulation of exuberant species is curbed by allowing an algaebloom to cause an algae bust. But the means by which natureforces its life forms to live within its limits would beunnecessary in human affairs if people used other means toachieve the restraint which nature demands.
In high school, I learned how to create the traditional five-paragraph paper with its introduction of a thesis, explanation of that claim through three sections riddled with supporting quotes, and conclusion that restated the author’s substantiated statement.
(1) People must reject the doctrine that moral behavior can bejustified by thought which requires no knowledgeof the causes of growth and no knowledge of its ecologicalconsequences.
(2) People must discard the misconception that yet more economicgrowth and still greater consumption will cause a demographictransition in which the human population will become stable atecologically sustainable levels automatically and painlessly.
(3) They must recognize that the moral obligations to fill allvital human needs can never cause those needs to diminish and cannever cause people to stop their destructive exploitation of theenvironment.
(4) They must reject the notion that exhorting people voluntarilyto protect the environment and to reduce their fertility is notan empirically effective means for accomplishing these morallynecessary goals.
(5) They must disabuse themselves of the conviction that, underthe conditions of a steadily increasing population, theenforcement of the presently accepted moral system -- defined byits human-centered ideals, its unconditional principles and itsegalitarian definition of justice and human rights -- can everreduce human suffering or prevent environmental disaster.
(6) Finally, the belief must be discarded that an ethics of goodintentions, especially those intentions directed to fillingindividual or human needs, will automatically produce the good ofthe whole.
One restrictive assumption is that reason entails specificfactual conclusions about human behavior. It requires, Hardinsays, that "As a rational being, each herdsman seeks tomaximize his gain" (Hardin, 1968, p. 1244). By immediateinference, Hardin's claim can be restated in a logicallyequivalent form: "Any herdsman or person who does not seekto maximize his (monetary) gain is irrational." But clearlythis assumption about the nature of reason is false: reason canmake no factual claims. In fact some people, who reasoncorrectly, reason from different premises. They may choose tolive simply so as to meet the needs of life with the least effortand with the least damaging impact on the environment. For suchpersons, simplicity and frugality can afford a better lifebecause they allow more opportunity for leisure, for cultural orsocial activity, and for intellectual development. Suchindividuals may have no concern or interest in maximizing theirmaterial gain. No! One cannot assume, as Hardin does, that reasonmakes rational individuals seek any specific factual goals.
Because misconceived coercive means are either ineffective orcounterproductive, they often cause oppression and tyranny ratherthan prevent them. Many examples can be found that illustrate thefutility of misconceived means to accomplish holistic ends.
(1) My son cannot be expected to learn to control his finances ifhe is free to run up whatever debt he wants and I have theobligation to pay it.
(2) The environment is unlikely ever to be protected when all arefree to use as much energy and to consume as many goods andservices as they can afford while society honors the moralobligation to supply the material necessities to everyone wholacks money.
(3) Significant incentives operate to increase the incidence ofdisease (and thereby raise medical costs) when all who take goodcare of their own health are forced to pay a disproportionateshare of the medical and disability costs of those who abusetheir bodies with tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, uninhibited andunprotected sexual contacts, overeating, and lack of exercise.
(4) No population is likely to remain stable as long asindividuals are free to have as many children as they want whilesociety at large has the moral obligation to pay for food,medical care, schools, and the increase in sanitary andemployment facilities necessary to support all the children ofparents who cannot do so.
(5) No nation (like North Korea) can be expected to rid itself ofan oppressive tyranny or develop an effective economic system ifits government is free from all foreign constraint andinterference while the rest of mankind is morally obliged tosupply food, medical, and financial aid to its suffering citizensand thus bolster that tyranny.
(6) The reliance on the free-will decisions of conscientiouspeople is self-eliminating, because it rewards those who have noconscience by letting them do and take what they wish while itpunishes the conscientious by making them bear the penalties ofdepravation. In summary, causation does work in matters of moralbehavior. Specifically, systems of moral belief are self-refutingif, when actually practiced and enforced, they subvert the moralgoals which they were intended to attain.