Im serves as the faculty advisor for Pi Gamma Mu, the international honor society for the social sciences, as well Sigma Phi Omega, the national professional and honor society for gerontology. She is also on the board of the Maryland Consortium for Adjunct Professional Development (MCAPD), a group dedicated to providing quality professional development opportunities for local adjunct faculty.
CORRECTION: The feats accomplished through the application of scientific knowledge are truly astounding. Science has helped us eradicate deadly diseases, communicate with people all over the world, and build that make our lives easier everyday. But for all scientific innovations, the costs must be carefully weighed against the benefits. And, of course, there's no guarantee that solutions for some problems (e.g., finding an HIV vaccine) exist though science is likely to help us discover them if they do exist. Furthermore, some important human concerns (e.g. some spiritual and aesthetic questions) cannot be addressed by science at all. Science is a marvelous tool for helping us understand the natural world, but it is not a cure-all for whatever problems we encounter.
The human ability to think abstractly was exploited by social managers from civilization’s earliest days. Fixating people on irrational symbols, and then manipulating those symbols for elite benefit, is arguably a universal trait of civilized peoples. Even today, a great deal of politics is the ; as with the earliest religion, the neocortex is bypassed in favor of , and people are easy prey to the cynical manipulation of emotionally charged symbols. The effects of can last for the victim’s lifetime. When people mistake symbols for reality, they are easily manipulated. Large-scale ideological indoctrination probably began in Sumer, as the priesthood concocted and promoted various beliefs. Symbology replaced reality, including the acceptance of the secular elite as deific, getting slaves to accept their status, and getting commoners to give food to the priesthood to fulfill some divinely ordained obligation. Religion passed from experience to belief with the rise of civilization. I am not suggesting that pre-civilized religions were necessarily enlightened. They had shamanic intermediaries too, but with the rise of civilization, the priest class had to work hard to justify the obviously unfair social organization that accompanied stratified populations. Direct religious experience was disparaged and suppressed while the priesthood’s religious indoctrination was promoted.
Early elites claimed divine status, and the priesthood abetted the fiction, and a universal practice among early civilizations was erecting monumental architecture. The was the first such structure. Anthropologists think that monumental architecture may be a form of societal/elite , so that a society can flaunt the resources used to make such overawing showings, both to encourage submission to the society's obvious wealth and power, and to also discourage attempts to compete with it. In Sumer, ziggurats were not only the center of the , but also held precious metals such as gold. The priesthood directed mass economic activity, such as organizing irrigation projects. In some ways, the priesthood was only adapting to urbanization. Their professional ancestors developed calendars and other methods of synchronizing vital activities such as plantings and harvests, with their attendant festivals; mistimings by mere days could lead to famine. Sumerian temples had statues in their central place of worship, in human form, bedecked with jewels and other precious adornments. Offerings of food were presented to the statues, which temple personnel ate that night. In the third millennium BCE, temples owned land and had their own workforce, which was again a “voluntary” one that discharged religious obligations. Although those temples performed valuable societal functions such as taking in orphans, the earliest urban religions were obviously businesses and could become rackets, in a pattern that continues to this day.
In an event that favors the hypotheses of climate-change advocates, there was a dip in global temperatures , which lasted for a few centuries. It was probably caused by remnants of the North American ice sheets melting and the resultant flush of freshwater into the North Atlantic. It was a less severe event than the , but it still caused epic droughts around the world. Some scientists think that the uncertainty caused by those cooling events helped spur agriculture, to enhance food security. Climate change from that event could be why Çatal Höyük was abandoned, and Tell Abu Hureyra survived the event, to only be abandoned several centuries later when another major dip in global temperatures occurred.
ABSTRACT: The hypothesis presented here is the result of discussions with parents of various nationalities over many years. It addresses two main issues: a. What are the conditions that help to produce healthier children? b. What should parents know about their responsibility in giving birth to healthier children?
In 50 years of practice, I have considered couples with more than one child and compared the health of one child against the other, trying to find the reasons why one had better health than the other.
I inferred that the crucial factor was the “erotic state” of the parents at the moment of conception. Children born when the parents were completely lost in each other in an erotic climax were the healthiest and had the best qualities of both parents.
The hypothesis is that to regenerate the human race to its zenith, conditions that promote loving relationships and the birth of children from such relationships must be encouraged in our society.
Self-awareness is the capacity to take oneself as the object of thought—people can think, act, and experience, and they can also think about what they are thinking, doing, and experiencing. In social psychology, the study of self-awareness is traced to Shelley Duval and Robert Wicklund’s (1972) landmark theory of self-awareness. Duval and Wicklund proposed that, at a given moment, people can focus attention on the self or on the external environment. Focusing on the self enables self-evaluation. When self-focused, people compare the self with standards of correctness that specify how the self ought to think, feel, and behave. The process of comparing the self with standards allows people to change their behavior and to experience pride and dissatisfaction with the self. Self-awareness is thus a major mechanism of self-control.
With University of Maryland University College's award-winning Bachelor of Science in social science, you'll gain a breadth of knowledge through interdisciplinary study that encompasses perspectives from the fields of anthropology, behavioral sciences, gerontology, psychology, and sociology. You'll also have the opportunity to drill down and focus closely on one of these fields.
Many academic fields, from the physical sciences to the life sciences to the social sciences, use hypothesis testing as a means of testing ideas to learn about the world and advance scientific knowledge. Whether you are a beginning scholar or a beginning student taking a class in a science subject, understanding what hypotheses are and being able to generate hypotheses and predictions yourself is very important. These instructions will help get you started.
A null hypothesis (H0) exists when a researcher believes there is no relationship between the two variables, or there is a lack of information to state a scientific hypothesis. This is something to attempt to disprove or discredit.
Your social science degree will help you learn to address social issues from an interdisciplinary perspective, communicate with a diverse audience, develop strong critical thinking skills, articulate the range of research methods used in the social sciences, and recognize good evidence. In addition, you'll learn to identify the implications of social science on various issues to develop policies and programs that enhance human welfare.
The scientific method is central to the identity of any self-described social science. Science is distinguished from nonscience not by the content or subject of study. Rather, the distinguishing characteristic of a science is the method of investigation. The scientific method relies on systematic, repeatable testing of expectations against the observed world. In their adoption of the scientific method, social sciences more closely resemble chemistry than its alchemical predecessors, which relied instead on the application of metaphysical rules to guide their work.