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C4 photosynthesis: how some plants avoid photorespiration

Photosynthesis converts these energy- depleted compounds (ADPand NADP+) back to the high energy forms (ATP and NADPH) and theenergy thus produced in this chemical form is utilized to drivethe chemical reactions necessary for synthesis of sugars andother carbon containing compounds (e.g., proteins, fats). Theproduction of high energy ATP and NADPH in plants occurs in whatis known as Light Phase Reactions (Z Scheme) (requiressunlight). The energy releasing reactions which converts themback to energy-depleted ADP and NADP is known as Dark PhaseReactions (Calvin Cycle) (does not require light) in whichthe synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates occurs.

Photosynthesis is the process by which chlorophyll - containing organisms - such
as green plants, algae, and some bacteria - capture energy from light and
convert it to chemical energy. For the process of photosynthesis to take place
the organism must contain chloroplasts. Chlorophyll is responsible for the green
color in plants and is also responsible for their ability to photosynthesize.

Photosynthesis is usually carried out in the leaves of green plants, but it can
also take place in other parts of the plant such as the stem. The balanced
chemical equation for photosynthesis is: Sunlight + 6CO2 + H2O --yields-C6H12O6
+ 6O2 The purpose of this lab is to answer the question, "Is sunlight
required for photosynthesis?" III.) Experimental Design / Materials and

Methods The first experiment was called "Separating Plant Pigments."

In this first experiment the materials that you need are a piece of green plant
(collard greens), a piece of chromatography paper, solvent, and a test tube. The
first thing you do is take your green plant and fold it up tightly. Second, you
lay the plant on the chromatography paper and smash parts of the plant onto the
paper. Next you mark the outside of the tube with a wax pencil where the bottom
of the pigments are. Then we take the paper back out of the tube and add the
solvent to the bottom of the test tube. Next we have to wait fifteen to twenty
minutes for the see what will happen to the paper. The purpose of this
experiment is to see how many different pigments will separate from the green
plants. The second experiment was called "Detecting Carbon Dioxide

Absorption in Green Plants." In the second experiment that was conducted
the materials needed are three large test tubes, some Elodea plants, bromthymol
blue solution, and a piece of tin foil. The first thing you do is place pieces
of the Elodea plant in two of the test tubes. Second you add the bromthymol blue
solution, which is a carbon dioxide indicator, to the test tube nearly to the
top. The third tube is filled with bromthymol blue solution and is used as a
control so that you can compare color change. Next you wrap one of the Elodea
containing tubes in tin foil so that it does not receive sunlight. The other

Elodea containing tube should be placed in the light. All should remain this way
for a twenty-four hour period. The purpose of this experiment is to detect when
carbon dioxide is released or gained. The third experiment is called
"Detecting Starch in Leaves." Starch is not a result of
photosynthesis, but we think that it came from sugars produced during
photosynthesis. The materials needed for this experiment are a hot plate, two
small beakers, water, ethanol, a leaf from a Coleus plant exposed to light; a
light deprived plant, and an iodine solution. The first thing you do is boiling
the light exposed leaf in water for one minute. Next you boil the same leaf in
ethanol for one minute or until the leaf has turned white. Take the leaf out of
the ethanol and place it on a small petri dish and soak it in the iodine
solution. If the plant contains starch the color of the iodine will change from
a rusty red color to a dark purple or black. Next you take the light deprived
plant and boil it for one minute in water. Take it out of the water and place it
in the ethanol solution and boil it for one minute. Take the leaf out of the
ethanol and place it on a small petri dish and cover it in iodine. The purpose
if this experiment is to detect starch in green plants. IV.) Results In the
first lab that was conducted our results came out positive that light is
required for photosynthesis to occur. In this experiment I had three color
pigments to separate out on to the chromatography paper. Photosynthesis was
present in these because the pigments contained chlorophyll a, which plays an
important part in photosynthesis. The other pigments contained carotene and
xanthrophylls, which are both present in photosynthesis. In the second
experiment we used Elodea plants and a carbon dioxide detecting solvent to see
when carbon dioxide is released or gained. In the first tube with the Elodea
wrapped in tin foil, so that it could not receive light, the plant gained carbon
dioxide during aerobic cellular respiration and turned the solvent yellow. In
the control tube the solvent remained the same color because carbon dioxide was
not gained or released. In the tube that was kept under the light carbon dioxide
was lost and the color changed to a dark blue. This release of carbon dioxide
under light proves that light is required from photosynthesis. The third
experiment that we conducted was to see if starch was found in the leaves of
green plants. In the plant that was exposed to light starch was found. This
proves that photosynthesis was taking place because the plant was producing
sugar. In the plant that was deprived of light there was no starch found which
proved that photosynthesis did not occur. The plant had to use its stored starch
as a source of food. V.) Discussion My interpretation of all these experiments
is that yes some type of light energy is required for photosynthesis to occur.

In every experiment conducted photosynthesis was present when there was light.

In the experiments where light was not present the plant was not producing food
or carbon dioxide. In conclusion these experiments prove to me that some type of
light is required for photosynthesis. If there is no source of light the plant
had to use its stored food to survive. Without light the plant could not survive
very long after it had used all of its stored food and energy.

In the last video we discovered what seems like a problem with the Calvin Cycle.

Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These molecules include sugars, enzymes and chlorophyll.

Photoaututrophs utilize sunlight for energy and CO2 for theircarbon source by this process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS whereby sunlightis absorbed by a complex compound known as chlorophyll andconverted to energy which drives a series of chemical reactionsthat ultimately removes hydrogen from water or other compoundsand then combines the hydrogen with carbon dioxide in a way thatproduces sugars.

What Is Photosynthesis? From Light Energy to Chemical …

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Carbon Dioxide in Planted Freshwater Aquaria

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