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the niche breadth hypothesis, ..

Aim: Patterns of species richness are often closely linked with climate, but the specific mechanisms by which species' climatic niches underlie large-scale richness patterns remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reduced temperature seasonality in the tropics promotes the evolution of species with narrow temperature niche breadths, and that this hypothesis helps explain high tropical richness. However, the relationship between species' climatic niche breadths and species richness has yet to be tested. We have addressed this issue using treefrogs (Hylidae) in eastern North America. Location: Eastern North America. Methods: We characterized climatic niches and niche breadths for all 24 hylid species in eastern North America using temperature and precipitation variables. We then examined the relationships between species richness, climatic niche positions and climatic niche breadths using phylogenetic comparative methods. Results: Species richness was negatively associated with mean climatic niche breadth, such that high-richness climates had species with narrower climatic niches. Our results also supported the roles of niche conservatism and the time-for-speciation effect in generating the relationship between climate and species richness in the region (more species in warm, wet regions that have been inhabited longer). Importantly, we show that the invasion of low-richness climates has occurred primarily through recent intraspecific niche expansion into these climates rather than evolution of species that are narrowly specialized for these conditions (although the two hylid clades studied showed somewhat different patterns). Main conclusions: We found that climatic zones with high species richness contain more species with narrower climatic niche breadths. Our results suggest that this pattern arose because narrow climatic niche breadths restricted the dispersal of most hylid species out of the ancestral, warm, moist climatic zones, allowing more time for speciation to build up higher species richness in these zones.

N2 - Aim: Patterns of species richness are often closely linked with climate, but the specific mechanisms by which species' climatic niches underlie large-scale richness patterns remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reduced temperature seasonality in the tropics promotes the evolution of species with narrow temperature niche breadths, and that this hypothesis helps explain high tropical richness. However, the relationship between species' climatic niche breadths and species richness has yet to be tested. We have addressed this issue using treefrogs (Hylidae) in eastern North America. Location: Eastern North America. Methods: We characterized climatic niches and niche breadths for all 24 hylid species in eastern North America using temperature and precipitation variables. We then examined the relationships between species richness, climatic niche positions and climatic niche breadths using phylogenetic comparative methods. Results: Species richness was negatively associated with mean climatic niche breadth, such that high-richness climates had species with narrower climatic niches. Our results also supported the roles of niche conservatism and the time-for-speciation effect in generating the relationship between climate and species richness in the region (more species in warm, wet regions that have been inhabited longer). Importantly, we show that the invasion of low-richness climates has occurred primarily through recent intraspecific niche expansion into these climates rather than evolution of species that are narrowly specialized for these conditions (although the two hylid clades studied showed somewhat different patterns). Main conclusions: We found that climatic zones with high species richness contain more species with narrower climatic niche breadths. Our results suggest that this pattern arose because narrow climatic niche breadths restricted the dispersal of most hylid species out of the ancestral, warm, moist climatic zones, allowing more time for speciation to build up higher species richness in these zones.

Australopithecus robustus is the species of robust Australopithecine found in East Africa.

Problem-based Learning in Biology with 20 Case …

Hence, again, the niche breadth hypothesis (H 4 above) seems to be refuted by these data on microhabitat niche breadths.

N2 - High-resolution stratigraphic and taxonomic data indicate that species longevities among Paleozoic (Mississippian) crinoids (Echinodermata) were affected by differences in niche breadth. A strong positive relationship exists between niche breadth, measured as the number of environments occupied by a species, and stratigraphic range. The robustness of this pattern is verified by a variety of rarefaction and statistical techniques confirming the long-held supposition that among animals ecological "generalists" have greater species longevities than ecological "specialists." The results also support the hypothesis that specialist clades have higher species richness.

AB - High-resolution stratigraphic and taxonomic data indicate that species longevities among Paleozoic (Mississippian) crinoids (Echinodermata) were affected by differences in niche breadth. A strong positive relationship exists between niche breadth, measured as the number of environments occupied by a species, and stratigraphic range. The robustness of this pattern is verified by a variety of rarefaction and statistical techniques confirming the long-held supposition that among animals ecological "generalists" have greater species longevities than ecological "specialists." The results also support the hypothesis that specialist clades have higher species richness.

The management consulting industry: academic perspective

High-resolution stratigraphic and taxonomic data indicate that species longevities among Paleozoic (Mississippian) crinoids (Echinodermata) were affected by differences in niche breadth. A strong positive relationship exists between niche breadth, measured as the number of environments occupied by a species, and stratigraphic range. The robustness of this pattern is verified by a variety of rarefaction and statistical techniques confirming the long-held supposition that among animals ecological "generalists" have greater species longevities than ecological "specialists." The results also support the hypothesis that specialist clades have higher species richness.

Hence, once again, the niche breadth hypothesis H 4 is not supported by these data on dietary niche breadths.

J.N1 - Due to publisher policy, the full text is not available on the repository until the 11th of September 2018.PY - 2016/9/11Y1 - 2016/9/11N2 - The study tested the hypothesis that measurement, using multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA), of the niche-breadth of river macrophyte species in southern tropical Africa, may predict their larger-scale biogeographical range.

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Bumblebees; their behaviour and ecology

The niche breadth hypothesis, which states that abundant species should be generalists whereas specialized species should be rare, is tested, but rejected as a general explanation for rarity.

Oxford University Press, Oxford

AB - Aim: Patterns of species richness are often closely linked with climate, but the specific mechanisms by which species' climatic niches underlie large-scale richness patterns remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reduced temperature seasonality in the tropics promotes the evolution of species with narrow temperature niche breadths, and that this hypothesis helps explain high tropical richness. However, the relationship between species' climatic niche breadths and species richness has yet to be tested. We have addressed this issue using treefrogs (Hylidae) in eastern North America. Location: Eastern North America. Methods: We characterized climatic niches and niche breadths for all 24 hylid species in eastern North America using temperature and precipitation variables. We then examined the relationships between species richness, climatic niche positions and climatic niche breadths using phylogenetic comparative methods. Results: Species richness was negatively associated with mean climatic niche breadth, such that high-richness climates had species with narrower climatic niches. Our results also supported the roles of niche conservatism and the time-for-speciation effect in generating the relationship between climate and species richness in the region (more species in warm, wet regions that have been inhabited longer). Importantly, we show that the invasion of low-richness climates has occurred primarily through recent intraspecific niche expansion into these climates rather than evolution of species that are narrowly specialized for these conditions (although the two hylid clades studied showed somewhat different patterns). Main conclusions: We found that climatic zones with high species richness contain more species with narrower climatic niche breadths. Our results suggest that this pattern arose because narrow climatic niche breadths restricted the dispersal of most hylid species out of the ancestral, warm, moist climatic zones, allowing more time for speciation to build up higher species richness in these zones.

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