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Photosynthesis from plant life produces molecular oxygen.

Animals that consume plants also make use of this energy, as do those that consume those that consume plants, and so on to the top of the food chain.

As important a job as making all of the world's food is, there's another vital function that photosynthesis performs: It generates the oxygen that oxygen-breathing animals need to survive.

and and (2016) Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 44 . pp. 647-683. ISSN 0084-6597.

Oxygenic photosynthesis without galactolipids

What Is Photosynthesis? From Light Energy to Chemical …

Figure 1 | The structures of the four large membrane-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes that drive oxygenicphotosynthesis.

In the followingsections, we review the contribution of recent structuraldata to our understanding of the architecture and func-tion of oxygenic photosynthesis.

The CHARGE SEPARATIONin PSI and PSII, together with the electron transferthrough the cytochrome-b6f complex, leads to theTHE COMPLEX ARCHITECTURE OF OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESISNathan Nelson and Adam Ben-ShemAbstract | Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal producer of both oxygen and organic matteron earth.

Photosynthesis: Nonoxygenic photosynthesis

The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important metabolic innovation in Earth history. It allowed life to generate energy and reducing power directly from sunlight and water, freeing it from the limited resources of geochemically-derived reductants. This greatly increased global primary productivity and restructured ecosystems. The release of O2 as an end product of water oxidation led to the rise of oxygen, which dramatically altered the redox state of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans and permanently changed all major biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the biological availability of O2 allowed for the evolution of aerobic respiration and novel biosynthetic pathways, facilitating much of the richness we associate with modern biology, including complex multicellularity. Here we critically review and synthesize information from the geological and biological records for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Data from both of these archives illustrate that this metabolism first appeared in early Paleoproterozoic time and, despite its biogeochemical prominence, is a relatively late invention in the context of our planet’s history.

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