In the liquid stroma there is an enzyme and the enzyme takes the carbon dioxide molecules and other molecules that are carbon-based that are already inside and then they both form compounds that stay in the cycle.
The light-independent reactions
Transitioning between photosynthesis and respiration
Photosynthesis and respiration both work together in order to gather energy from the sun so they can pack the energy from the sunlight into chemical molecules and then they break down the chemical molecules and after the molecules have been broken down, they help organisms and also their cells by powering their functions, movements, and also the growth
What happens to the carbon atom during during cellular respiration?
During respiration, the stored chemical energy gets changed into ATP.
After the NADPH molecules are formed, they bring pairs of the the molecules into the next part of photosynthesis.
Light-independent reactions during photosynthesis
The light-independent reactions are the second stage of photosynthesis, and the light-independent reactions are also called the Calvin cycle.
The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.
Photosynthesis occurs inside chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment found inside the thylakoid membranes. These chlorophyll molecules are arranged in groups called photosystems. There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem II and Photosystem I. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light, the energy from this light raises an electron within the chlorophyll molecule to a higher energy state. The chlorophyll molecule is then said to be photoactivated. Excited electron anywhere within the photosystem are then passed on from one chlorophyll molecule to the next until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of the photosystem. This special chlorophyll molecule then passes on the excited electron to a chain of electron carriers.
So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without these products the light independent reactions can't occur as glycerate 3-phosphate cannot be reduced. Therefore a shortage of these products will limit the rate of photosynthesis. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate produced is limited as carbon dioxide is needed for its production and therefore the rate of photosynthesis is affected. Finally, many enzymes are involved during the process of photosynthesis. At low temperatures these enzymes work slower. At high temperatures the enzymes no longer work effectively. This affects the rate of the reactions in the Calvin cycle and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.
The acidity was found to arise from the opening of their stomata at night to take in CO2 and fix it into malic acid for storage in the large vacuoles of their photosynthetic cells. It could drop the pH to 4 with a malic acid concentration up to 0.3M . Then in the heat of the day, the stomata close tightly to conserve water and the malic acid is decarboxylated to release the CO2 for fixing by the Calvin cycle. PEP is used for the initial short-term carbon fixation as in the , but the entire chain of reactions occurs in the same cell rather than handing off to a separate cell as with the C4 plants. In the CAM strategy, the processes are separated temporally, the initial CO2 fixation at night, and the malic acid to Calvin cycle part taking place during the day.
Higher plants, phytoplankton, algae, as well as some bacteria carry out the process of photosynthesis.
Steps of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis occurs in two main stages, the first stage being towards light reaction and the second stage being the Calvin Benson Cycle.