As with other early life processes, the first photosynthetic process was different from today’s, but the important result – capturing sunlight to power biological processes – was the same. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a in a was used for capturing sunlight. Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor (for locating volcanic vents). But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation.
This was done by separating the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotene and xanthophylls) from one another using paper chromatography.
6CO + 6H O ® C H O + 12O (in the presence of light energy and chlorophyll) Aim- The aim of the experiment is to determine what effect light intensity has upon the rate of photosynthesis of Canadian Pondweed (Elodea)....
During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide plus water in the presence of sunlight, enzymes and chlorophyll produce glucose and oxygen as waste product.
The word equation for photosynthesis is: Light [IMAGE]Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen Chlorophyll Although most of the glucose produced is converted into insoluble starch for storage in the stem, leaves or roots, some is used immediately by the plant to provide via respiration....
Theaccessory pigment role is a singlet-singlet energy transfer from thecarotenoid to the bacteriochlorophyll, while the protective role is atriplet-triplet energy transfer from the bacteriochlorophyll to thecarotenoid.
They serve as accessory light harvesting pigments,extending the range of wavelengths over which light can drivephotosynthesis, and they act to protect the chlorophyllous pigments fromthe harmful photodestructive reaction which occurs in the presence ofoxygen.
Variables: The variables that might affect the rate of photosynthesis in this experiment are: Temperature: When the temperature rises so does the rate of photosynthesis; this is because as the temperature around the plant rises the enzymes controlling photosynthesis inside the chloroplasts heat up and start moving around faster, the fast moving molecules collide with other fast moving enzymes causing them to react....
The protein matterincludes some of the enzymes and coenzymes used in the photosyntheticprocess; the lipid portion contains two types of chlorophyll, alongwith other pigments that assist in absorbing light energy.
The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams (, ) can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work. Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nobel Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Chlorophyll molecules , with magnesium in their porphyrin cages, and long tails. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
There are four things that are required by the plant before it can carry out photosynthesis, they are light, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water ....
The granum (plural grana) is a stack of which contains the photosynthetic pigments; this is where the light dependent stage takes place:
Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons. Chlorophyll is called a and, as it sits in its “,” it only absorbs wavelengths of light that . The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green. Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so , and there are many similar variations among bacteria. Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit. That pathway of carrying the electron that got “excited” by the captured photon is called an . Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works.
Algae are a very diverse group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms that account for almost 50% of the photosynthesis that takes place on Earth. Algae have a wide range of antenna pigments to harvest light energy for photosynthesis giving different types of algae their characteristic colour. Early work done with algae contributed much to what is presently known about the carbon dioxide fixation pathway and the light harvesting reactions. The processes of photosynthesis in algae and higher plants are very similar. From among the three types of carbon dioxide‐concentrating mechanisms known in photosynthetic organisms, two types are found in different types of algae. Algae are proposed to play a role in the global carbon cycle by helping remove excess carbon dioxide from the environment. Recently, algae are recognized as a promising biodiesel source due to its efficient absorption and conversion of solar energy into chemical energy.