The protein matterincludes some of the enzymes and coenzymes used in the photosyntheticprocess; the lipid portion contains two types of chlorophyll, alongwith other pigments that assist in absorbing light energy.
The rate alsovaries with the plant species and its physiological state.Photosynthesis is not a single process but consists of a number ofphotochemical and enzymatic reactions.
Most of the energyreleased both by the burning of fossil fuels and by the metabolism ofliving cells is given off as heat and must be replaced by thecontinued input of radiant energy from the Sun.The principal organic products of plant photosynthesis arecarbohydrates.
Solar heating is referred to as passive space heating and in this example, I'm going to try and explain how this works. One way is to use in your home that can be created by using sun-heated tubes of water on your roof and pumping it into your .
Chloroplasts have many shapes in different species but aregenerally fusiform shaped (and much larger than mitochondria) andhave many flattened membrane-surrounded vesicles called thylakoidswhich are arranged in stacks called grana. Thesethylakoid membranes contain all of the photosynthetic pigments ofthe chloroplast and all of the enzymes required for Light Phasereactions. The fluid in the stroma surrounding the thylakoidvesicles contains most of the enzymes for Dark phase reactions.
The figure illustrates how closely photosynthesis and respiration are linked. As you can see, thanks to these two life-sustaining processes, plants and animals depend on each other to survive.
Photosynthesis results in carbon dioxide gas being removed from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is responsible for global warming.
Only plants can photosynthesize, but both plants and animals depend on respiration to release the chemical potential energy originally captured through photosynthesis.
Plant photosynthesis, both the Light Phase and Dark phasereactions, takes place in chloroplasts, which may be regarded asthe "power plants" of the green leaf cells. At night,when there is no sunlight energy, ATP continues to be generatedfor the plant's needs by respiration, i.e., oxidation of(photosynthetically produced) carbohydrate in mitochondria(similar to animals).
The energy provided bycoal, oil, and gas comes from photosynthesis carried on by plants ofearlier times and preserved down through the ages, to be released bycombustion in modern industrial processes.
In respiration energy is released fromsugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (theelectron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondriause the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. Inphotosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed),and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in theprocess the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. Inrespiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2,while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from thewater to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides thisenergy.
The excess energy not used up in the chemical reactions isstored as chemical energy in the organic products formed.The rate of photosynthesis is dependent on the followingenvironmental factors: light intensity, temperature, and theavailability of carbon dioxide, water, and certain minerals.
So we can summarize by saying that the photosynthetic plantstrap solar energy to form ATP and NADPH (Light Phase) and thenuse these as the energy source to make carbohydrates and otherbiomolecules from carbon dioxide and water (Dark Phase),simultaneously releasing oxygen in to the atmosphere. Thechemoheterotrophic animals reverse this process by using theoxygen to degrade the energy-rich organic products ofphotosynthesis to CO2 and water in order to generate ATP fortheir own synthesis of biomolecules.
Photosynthesis is the first stage of energy flow through an ecosystem. You and all other animals on earth rely on the energy that plants store for life. But animals aren’t the only organisms that burn energy. Plants burn energy as they grow, too. In both plants and animals, the process of — which releases stored energy for use — occurs in the mitochondria inside each cell.