We have isolated 18S RNA from cytoplasmic extracts of Newcastle disease virus-infected Chinese hamster ovary cells and tested its ability to direct protein synthesis in extracts derived from wheat germ. The products of the cell-free reaction directed by this RNA contain polypeptides that comigrate with NP, M,F, and 47K roteins from virions. In addition, the products contain a polypeptide (67K) that migrates on polyacrylamide gels slightly faster than the HN protein from virions. Tryptic peptide analysis of the cell-free products and proteins from virions confirms their identity.
N2 - In a study of the role of methionine in protein chain initiation in wheat, a transformylase was isolated and partially purified from commercial wheat germ and from wheat leaves grown under sterile conditions. This enzyme catalyzed the formylation of a methionyl-tRNAf which was present in the wheat leaf chloroplasts. The enzyme used N10-formyltetrahydrofolate as formyl donor and required 5 mM Mg2+ and 20 mm K+ ions for maximum activity. The molecular weight of the transformylase was estimated at 45,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150. The enzyme was present in isolated chloroplasts at a higher specific activity than in the remainder of the leaf extract. This transformylase and the methionyl-tRNAf are components of a protein chain initiating system in wheat chloroplasts similar in many ways to the system in Escherichia coli.
T-2 toxin was a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis both in vitro and in vivo (Ueno et al., 1973b; Rosenstein & Lafarge-Frayssinet, 1983).
II.4.3.4 Alterations of cellular membranes The trichothecenes as a group inhibit protein synthesis, but the potency of the effect varies according to the trichothecene and the system ( in vitro or in vivo) used to measure the inhibition.
Inhibition of protein synthesis was explained by the high affinity of T-2 toxin for 60S ribosomal subunits of Tetrahymena, as is the case with cultured cells.
I.4.2.5 Biochemical effects and mode of action Ochratoxin A is an inhibitor of tRNA synthetase and protein synthesis in several microorganisms ( Bacillus subtilis, B.
It is especially important to avoid wheat. Wheat has been selectively bred to increase larger quantities of protein, a lectin called "wheat germ agglutinin" and glycoprotein. This lectin protein is what is largely responsible for many illnesses and allergies. This wheat germ agglutinin glycoprotein can do direct damage to the majority of tissues in your body. It can promote inflammation, pass through the blood-brain barrier, interfere with digestive/absorptive activities, shift the balance in bacteria flora, and may disrupt endocrine function. Lectins are extremely small and resistant to a breakdown. Even sprouting does not negate some of the harmful anti-nutrient effects. Adrenal Fatigue sufferers usually have a dysfunctional food assimilation pattern and slowed absorption. Adding wheat to the diet may lead to extra stress for the already weak body to process. This can slow down recovery or in advanced cases, trigger adrenal crashes.
The cytotoxicity has been associated with either impairment of protein synthesis by the binding of the compounds to the ribosomes of eukaryotic cells, or the dysfunction of cellular membranes.
Keep in mind certain specifics about the fish you keep.
Examples include that for head growth in Flower Horn Cichlids, Orandas, Red Devils, make sure your fish diet includes some of these ingredients: whole fish meal, wheat germ, and squid or shrimp.
While Goldfish such as Orandas, are more herbivorous and raw proteins should be lower.
Carbohydrates as explained earlier are not the best source of energy in fish, but sources of Carbohydrates still can be useful, especially when whole wheat is used.
One reason is for roughage, especially in many South American cichlids, goldfish and koi, but also for other fish for the Wheat Germ found in whole wheat is a natural source of vitamin E, an important vitamin to promote healthy growth and fish color.
Wheat Germ is very helpful in preparing your Koi fish
for winter (during the fall) in cooler climates, or even feeding during winter where water temperatures remain above 45-50F
The competitive inhibitor effect of ochratoxin A on tRNA synthetase and protein synthesis in rat hepatoma cells can be prevented by the addition of phenylalanine in the cell culture medium at a molar ratio of phenylalanine: ochratoxin A of 1.7:1 (Creppy et al., 1979b).
So basically scientists created a substance in the laboratory that duplicates the end product of what happens when people or animals go outside on a sunny day and their skin synthesizes vitamin D from exposure to sunlight; it's basically a lab made vitamin supplement.
D-Calcium Panothenate/ D-pantothenic acid: