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Cellular respiration occurs in cells, Takes place ..

In today’s hunter-gatherer societies, the EROI for killing large animals dwarfs all other food sources. The EROI, of calories produced divided by those burned during the hours of labor invested, for large game (a deer, for example), is more than 100, and on average four times that of small game, fifteen times that of birds, about eight times that of roots and tubers, and 10-15 times that of seeds and nuts. The hunter-gatherer EROI for seeds, nuts, and birds is around ten-to-one. An average-sized adult African elephant carcass provides about 13 million calories, which would sustain a band of 12 people for a year if they could eat it all before it rotted and did not die of protein poisoning. The EROI for those easily killed proboscideans when humans invaded the Western Hemisphere could have been in the hundreds and even more than one thousand. Large animals have always been the mother lode of hunter-gatherer peoples, and the consensus among anthropologists is that no instincts urge a hunter to kill only what is needed, but a hunter will kill whatever he can. That finding partly derives from studying modern hunter-gatherers. There is no doubt that when early humans intruded into environments that never before encountered humans, where animals would have had no intrinsic fear of humans, people would have had an exceptionally easy time killing all large animals encountered. Animals without experience around humans, such as Antarctic penguins, are easily approached and killed. As happened innumerable times in the historical era, intruding humans killed all the naïve animals that they could. The only animals that survived developed a healthy fear of humans and avoided them, but how many could develop that fear before they were all killed? From the very beginning of the , . More than 500 million years later, a new kind of animal appeared that turned that advantage into a fatal disadvantage, as it found a way to mine that energy stored in large animals, and it quickly plundered it to exhaustion whenever it could.

Whatever the case may be, it appears clear that the population in Africa and Neanderthal population in Europe and the Middle East were isolated for tens of thousands of years, perhaps far more than 100,000 years, and humans used a toolkit like the Neanderthals’ until something happened between 70 and 50 kya. Just happened is a matter of great controversy, and in recent years, several disciplines have converged on the issue and are drawing a clearer picture today. Some key findings that shed light came from global DNA studies, linguistics partnering with evolutionary theory, and brain studies. In the past generation, as has been applied to many areas, a startling picture of the human journey has emerged. , probably for flexible power generation. For animals that reproduce sexually, the mother’s mitochondria are passed to her offspring, while virtually none comes from the father, if any. Geneticists can measure mutations in and approximate when two different animals shared a common ancestor, whether they belong to the same species or not. Similarly, regarding nuclear DNA, the produces a male mammal, and mutations in the Y chromosome can also be analyzed to estimate when two men shared the same ancestor. , but scientists have been aligning DNA results with fossil dates, which are considered more reliable, and have been resolving some limitations. But if the timing is suspect for such genetic analyses, far more confidence exists for descent relationships. Human DNA testing is a burgeoning business, used for everything from freeing to to examining the genetic heritage of the .

And in the cell membrane of the prokaryotic cell Photosynthesis and ..

RE: Where in a prokaryotic cell does cellular respiration take place

Many different technologies have been developed that attempted to harness the zero-point field, and devices made from rotating magnets seem to be the most common prototypes (the effect begins to appear at about 2,000 RPMs in devices), but a solid-state device similar to would be the likely “winner” in any FE device contest. included concepts such as manipulating the space-time continuum, inter-dimensional energy transfer, and other fantastic ideas that nobody has an easy time comprehending. Sparky's paper could be seen as merely pretty and fanciful theorizing, but his device worked. I will never forget the awe in my close associate's voice as he described ice forming on Sparky's device as it began churning out electricity, and the wiring configuration defied conventional notions of electricity. Ice forming on it, as it begins outputting great amounts of energy (Sparky's device produced one million times more energy than went into it), is not confined to Sparky's device; in the FE field, that effect is one of the most impressive pieces of evidence that a device is accessing the zero-point field. A radically different physics than is taught to mainstream scientists in the early 21st century explains why Sparky's device worked. Sparky's device also produced antigravity effects, and the for which the research went black in the 1950s needed vast amounts of energy to operate. Those technologies far past what Sparky created in his home. FE and antigravity are interrelated in more ways than one, and the vision presented in this chapter will assume that those technologies are universally used by humanity.

For the first concept presented above, for conventional renewable energy sources, they are replenished by sunlight or radiation from Earth’s interior; one is fusion, and the other is fission. For so-called non-renewable energy sources, such as hydrocarbons and fissile materials, they are either renewed on timescales so vast that they are effectively non-renewable for humans (such as ), or are “renewed” by the (fissile materials), so could only be renewed with new planetary formation. In mainstream thought, the currently non-renewable energy resources are primarily hydrocarbons (petroleum, coal, and natural gas) and uranium. Much of the debate centers around the definition of oil. What has been called oil for the past 150 years is today called . It is the oil formed by the , and can be mined by drilling wells and extracting it with the conventional methods that have been used since the beginning, and new techniques are periodically invented to increase the rate and total extraction. For conventional oil, humanity has unearthed about 1.1 trillion barrels since 1859, and about as of 2014. Production of conventional oil peaked in 2006 at 25 billion barrels per year and has declined since then. At current production rates, conventional oil will be completely depleted in less than 50 years. About another five billion barrels per year are called unconventional oil, which is called heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and oil sands. Those unconventional oils comprise trillions more barrels, and total and arguably more. For fissile materials, primarily uranium, the peak may have already been reached by 2014, or it . For , in that the peak may have already been reached, or it is only a few decades into the future at most. For coal, may also be only a few decades into the future. Peak extraction usually occurs when about half of the recoverable energy resource has been mined. In summary, the energy resources that have powered the Industrial Revolution are all on their way to largely vanishing in this century. The only resources with seeming viability past this century are coal and unconventional oil, which brings us to the second concept: .

in what type of cell does photosynthesis occur

Going back to the beginnings of the to how the to the , what Marx called separating the workers from the means of production had to be performed first so that the ownership class could form. With the workers put in their place, then the “owners” could create instruments of ownership and trade them. Thus began stock markets. Similar to how , when stock markets formed, owners became divorced from operations. In corporate America, for instance, there are theoretical governance mechanisms such as boards of directors and company officers that answer to the shareholders, but the relationship is often more theoretical than actual, and “cooking the books” to make management look good and inflate the stock price is as old as corporations. Dealing with that aspect of corporations is largely what I do to make a living. I have lived through several major financial scandals in my career, and they .

Many assumptions of neoclassical economics have been convincingly falsified by the physical, biological, and social sciences. Some of those assumptions are that people are independently minded rational actors who do not look to what others do (i.e., humans are not herd animals), that the economy can be divorced from the ecosystem that supports it, that money can substitute for , and that economic production can be described without referencing physical work. Neoclassical economics ignores the fact that entropy saps the efficiency of any system, economic or otherwise. Unlike a genuine science, almost no branches of today’s economics, particularly neoclassical economics, base their theories on hypotheses that can be tested and . Today’s mainstream economics resembles a faith more than a science.

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Where does photosynthesis take place? | Yahoo Answers


Sep 27, 2011 · Where does photosynthesis take place

Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.

This tutorial introduces photosynthesis

As with previous Epochal Events, the advances in mental achievement were as dramatic as material changes. However, other than the , humans largely possessed the same cognitive equipment. If an infant girl from the that left Africa could have been placed in a home in an industrialized nation today, there is little reason to believe that she would not live a normal life. The changes in mental achievement during the journeys of have had little to do with biological changes and, in fact, in the past 30,000 years. Humanity’s material and mental changes were thoroughly interrelated. The human world became vastly more complex with the rise of industrialization, so much so that most people today have very little understanding of how their world actually works. It usually takes systems thinkers with scientific training to to understand the modern world’s complexities. For instance, about 95% of Americans are scientifically illiterate and have little idea where their energy comes from or how the myriad moving parts of their civilizations operate and interact. Americans are effective and are , and the rest of the industrialized world is close behind, but they have little idea where any of it comes from or how it was produced and delivered to them.

LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis

By 1300, Earth was cooling down, High Middle Ages Europe was largely deforested, and nearly all arable land was under the plow. Europe had reached the Malthusian limit of its means of preindustrial production. The 1300s were a century of unending calamity for Europe, beginning with famines in 1304, 1305, and 1310, and a that lasted three years. Famines visited Europe at least once a generation in the 1300s. In 1337, England and France . Those events were only a hint at what lied ahead. Plagues and famines tend to be conjoined: weakened bodies are susceptible to disease. The Black Death pandemic probably originated in war-torn and famine-plagued China . In 1346, it reached Europe. By 1350, and . War, famine, and epidemics were so prevalent in the 1300s that the became an art form in the 1400s and 1500s, after the . Europe became a hell on Earth. But the work that watermills performed was not subject to famine and disease, and the work of millions of “energy slaves” surely helped hold Europe together. Labor was in such shortage after the catastrophes that .

Oxygen discovery, atomic structure, and location information

One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.

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